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with man, as he was a young woman 7 Has the period of 1800 years, diminished his strength, or is he a man that he should have grown imbecile through age? —How often do we call the Jews a set of hard hearted and blood thirsty villains for not believing what took place in their own day, but executing the Son of God as an impostor. Every impartial person must acknowledge, that the great bulk of the English place themselves just in the same situation as the Jews, when they ridiculed the Prophetess, and would have persecuted her if our Prince had been as weak as Pontius Pilate, and had yielded to their senseless murder breathing clamour. It would have been much more becoming in such insignificant animals as we are, to have waited with patient submission to the Decrees of Heaven, and not presumptuously attempt to scan the ways of providence by judging and determining before the appointed time. We called o superstitious, weak, and stupid, for crediting that which was not more wonderful than what we firmly believe, though it took place near 2000 years since, and is handed down to as by traditivo, #9' the dark ages and a variety of mediums which we often take a pleasure in proving to be suspicious. Does not all this open a door to the scoffs and jeers of Infidels 2 Does it not give them a glorious opportunity of making our foolish conduct in this respect, a powerful engine wherewith to strike at the very root of our holy religion, by shewing us. how easily we can see the errors and absurdities of others, and wonder at their being so besotted, when, if we were capable of asking ourselves a few close questions, we might perhaps find that we were cherishing in our own minds dogmas equally repugnant to common sense. Our prince is aware, that if the discussion of these topics had been pushed still further by the misguided zeal of religious persecution, it would give scope to a thousand such illnatured observations and inferences as those l have just mentioned; therefore I look up to him with veneration, as an experienced Father, whose judgement is not blinded by his affection for his children, but who has the resolution to deny such of their requests as his superior knowledge, and foresight, convinces him will militate against their happiness.


How often have 1 heard persons exclaim “I wonder how any one can be so credulous as to be lead away by that woman.”—In the same manner i have heard a gaping clown, when staring at the lofty fabric of St. Paul, express his

astonishment, that human ingenuity could

plan and erect so stupendous a pile; but the skilful architect views it with far less amazement, because he knows the principles upon which the temple was designed, and the means by which that design was carried into execution, and could himself, perhaps, raise as grand a structure, if he had the same opportunity of displaying his abilities.—Docs not this prove, that all our wonder arises from our ignorance, and that the only reason why we are surprised at the weakoness of the Southcoterians is, that we are unacquainted with the theory of the human mind in general, and with our own faculties in particular If we were capable of divesting ourselves of the prejudices of education, the trammels of superstition, and all the shackles which surrounding circumstances impose upon us; if we could dissect our brain, ana

Iyaz, o a 1 its as, arro! owl-e-o-o-o-es-tory our knowledge, we should find the portion of it obtained by thinking, examining, and judging for ourselves, so small as hardly to be discernible in the mass of rubbish that we have received without investigation, from our nurse, our schoolmaster, and our priest.—The instruction we imbibed from these, was considered as the dictates of truth and reason by our infantine capacities. We grow up in reverence of what we have learned from paients, elders, and superiors, falsely conceiving it the result of our own conviction, and, whether right or wrong, becoming more obstimately bigotted to it the longer we continue it. Our self love, pride, and vanity, prompt us to attach a peculiar importance to oar

own opinions, and to attribute them to

our judgment and discrimination, or to any cause but that of chance, or accident, which threw us in the way of the education we have received, whether good or bad. To set our knowledge of, or our fondness for, particular dogmas to their account, instead of to our own election, is not sufficiently flattering to human nature. Is it then to le wondered at that the more ignorant we are, the more obstinate we shall be in adhering to any

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sidiculous notion we may have embracedo And is it not evident, that the propor , a son the balk of mankind on gilt to assign for their profession of a particular religion is, that I am a good Maheimmetan, because I was born at Constantitople, and a true Christian, because i was born at iondon 2-—When we reflect apon the history of inau, can we be susprised at any thing he does under the influence of religion ?– There is no orincopie so powerful over the human mind as superstition, when enforced and dilected by a Priest. It is quite immaterial whether it is the worship of the most hideous idol to which the poor benighted indian bows the knee, or the more rational adoration of a Supreme Being, as the Author of Nature.—Their effects will be the same wherever a Priesthood have the liberty of modifying them to answer their own interested purposes-—Let us then he moderate and charitable, and avoid exposing our shallow knowledge of self, ły abusing others, even if they should } e in error. But God forbid that I should say they are because they see

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“. . the passaces in holy writ upon which she rested her divine mission. I have that zeal and enthusiasm in the cause of truth, that I will make no serupie in declaring Iny oninion on this case, even- though I should be thought a in disguise, and be loaded with every species of opporobrium. I do roundiv assert, without the fear of contradiction, that the texts selected

of her doctrines, are as pointed and as applicable as any of those upon which we ground the christian system. To those who say that her death proved the fallacy of her scheme, and her followers will no longer exist as a sect, it is answered that her disciples know the Almighty has changed bis mind before; he had repented that he had made man, that he called Jesus Christ to heaven before he had causcd the Lion and the Lamb to lay down together, and the land to flow with milk and honey; and may he not, say the true believers, have some wise and mysterious end in

11are in my Bible than 1 have been view in taking the holy prophetess to

*ausov to ove., isto be extended and improved, and not that of religion —The Jews never discovered that our system was predicted in their books and will not believe it to this day. The language of oracles and prophecies has never been direct and perspicuous, but, on the contrary, dark and mysterious. The fertile imagination of St. Augustine could see the whole of the New Testament in the Old: he discovered that even the piece of red rag held out as a signal by a harlot, was typical of the blood of our blessed, Saviour, and the two wives of Abraham tneant the synagogue and the catholic church. We protestants, in our exposttions, make the man of sin to be the pope, the Romish religion antichristian; and the more enlightened Southcoterians can see still farther than us. They find that Jesns went off without making the earth a paradise as was promised, and

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-erro-visiot infessins ---with - the Shiloh. Perhaps the crying sins of this great Babylon have offended him. But be this as it may, whatever is, is right; it is all for the best, and must at last work together for good. Let us then cordially unite in offering up those sentiments of praise, which are the emanation of a true and loyal heart, to out good and gracious Prince Regent, for his mild and generous conduct towards this new sect-of christians, which, I have no doubt will flourish to the end of time; it being my most serious persuasion, that, according to critical evidence, this system and our own only holy and infallible faith must stand or fall together,

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The American Documents to be continued

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out having read her works, or examin

by Mirs. Southcott for the illustration

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herd Does a horse break his halter? We


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* XXVII. No. 9] LONDON, SATURDAY, MARCH 4, 1815. [price is.


The following RF flections place in a clear right the Changes, which have taken place in Spain, since the return of Ferdinand, the beloved, in consequence of the Deliverance of that country. For my part, I have very little feeling for those, who endeavoured to restore him. They well knew him and his family; they well knew the sort of government which they had under that family; they had no reason to expect better government than before; they wrote and fought for him ; they have him ; and much good may he do them. There were many persons, of whom 1 was one, who did not wish to see Europe under the sway of Napoleon, but who feared, that his being overthrown would produce evil, by replacing all the nations of Europe under their old masters, with a despotism, on the part of the latter, to rule the people with a rod of iron. As to supposing, as some men did, that the old families would be more mild in their government than formerly; that the lesson, as it was called, would make them gentle in future, and allow their people more liberty than they enjoyed before, nothing could, it ap

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On lhe Political Changes which have taken place in Spain since the return of Ferdinand. - - . My object in presenting these reflections to the public, is to throw some light on a subject of the greatest importance to the tranquillity of Europe. My homage is due only to justice and to virtue, for in whatever country or individual they may be found, the friend of liberty must honour and respect them. Wishing to divest myself of all natioual and party spirit, which never fail to blind the eyes of those who are under their influence, I will express with the utmost frankness, my ideas on events of such

peared to me, be more foolish, nothing more opposite to the general practice of mankind. Who, as I once before asked, that has cattle or sheep which break over or through his fences, lower or weaken the fences upon bringing back the flock or the

put a chain in its stead. I have a gang of leaping Mares and Colts, which have broken out, several times this winter, from rough pasture into my meadows and fields, allured by the sight of better living. What have I done? Have I patted them and caressed them 3 Have I given them a greater and farther range Not I, faith ! I have sought out the places of their escape; and having driven them back, have constantly redoubled the bartier; and have, at last, made it impossible for them to get out with their lives. ‘Ferdinand is pursuing my plan, and, I

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importance as those which have lately flappened in Spain, and which, in my opinion, have not yet been considered in their true light. For this purpose I will give a brief historical recapitulation of hem, without which it will be impossible . to form a just opinion of their origin and future consequences. The Spanish Nation, invaded by Napoleon and deserted by Ferdinand in a Way, if not the most criminal, at least the most impolitic, nobly resisted so unjust an aggression. That this desertion was contrary to the wish of the Spaniards, is evident from the means taken by the people of Vittoria to hinder his ill-judged journey, for they unharnessed his carriage, notwithstanding his utmost remonstrances, and those of his stupid advisers and followers. In order to oppose the most effectual resistance to the invasion J.


of Napoleon, the people appointed new authorities, because the former were corrupted or intimidated by the orders of Ferdinand himself, and as such, unwilling to resist the yoke that was about to be imposed on them by the conqueror. All the authorities, established during this period of the revolution, were recognized by England and by all the other powers of Europe, who dared to oppose the arms of Napoleon, and they shewed not the least hesitation to form treaties of alliance and friendship with them. In short, to doubt the legality of the new Spanish Government, would be to condemn a revolution, more generally approved than any one of which we have any example. Nothing could more strongly prove the legitimacy of the government, than the elections for representatives which took place in all the provinces unoccupied by the enemy, and among the individuals of those that were, who met at Cadiz, then the capital of the Spanish Empire, in order to form the extraordinary Cortes; an assembly which the government of this country, by its agent the Marquis of Wellesley, wisely promoted, knowing that the Spaniards could make no progress in defending their independence, without look at the same time their internal iberty. This assembly, notwithstanding the desertion of Ferdinand and his base acts of submission, as those of soliciting to be adopted a son of Napoleon, and asking him the command of a division in his armies for his brother Charles, while Spain was suffering under every sacrifice to redeem him from captivity, decreed that he was their King, that a Regency should be appointed in his room, but that on his return he should not be recognized till he had sworn to the Constitution in the bosom of the Cortez, and that an act, or treaty, he might make, should be null and void, till the said condition should be performed. The Extraordinary Cortez ordered the Constitution to be transmitted to all the Allied Powers, and by whom the different Regencies were recognized as legitimate. Napoleon ressed by the entrance of the Allies into *rance, sought to diminish the number of his enemies and increase that of his friends: as he well knew the meanness and baseness of Ferdinand, he took care to make him an ally of his own, and the enemy of those who were defending his satise in Spain. Hence - followed that

POLITICAL REGISTER.—Delircrance of Spain.


monstrous phenomenon, the Treaty of Valency, a treaty so shameful and indecent, that Ferdinand himself, in order to hide the ignominy of it, pretended that he had no other intention than to outwit Bonaparte: (see the puerile and ridiculous Pamphlet of the Canon Escoiguiz, a worthy companion of Ferdinand, and his counsellor in making the above treaty) as if following Bonaparte on his throne, he who had so often degraded himself by submission, was now bold enough not to fulfil the stipulations, or as if foreseeing his fall, he would have given the world sufficient ground to suspect his veracity, merely to anticipate his freedom by 15 days, if that lite can be called freedom which is spent among nuns, in passing from convent to convent. In order to guard against the effects of so shameful a treaty, in which Ferdinand bound himself without delay, to restore to Bonaparte all the prisoners made by the Spaniards, which were either in the Peninsula, England, or America, and to cause those English troops who were then fighting so gloriously for his personal liberty, to evacuate Spain, the ordinary Cortez issued the decree of the 2d of February, 1814,to annull the said convention. The decree was immediately transmitted to all the Spanish authorities, and to Lord Wellington, who, nominated by the Cortez generalissimo of the Spanish Armies, was, above all other persons, responsible for its being complied with ; because, by a charge of such importance. the safety and defence of the Cortez, and even the national liberty, were committed . to his care, and the representatives of the Spanish people had shewn themselves satisfied with this confidence, inasmuch as they had Îronoured him with titles, estates and distinctions. The decree was also communicated to the English. Ambassador, and by means of the Spahish Ambassadors, to all the Allied Powers; they all, as well as Lord Wellington, expressed themselves satisfied with a decree so honorable to the representatives who had issued it, as well as useful to the powers who were interested in the independence of Europe. And how could it

be otherwise, when they saw themselves.

freed from so shameful and dangerous a compromise, as that of furnishing Napoleon with a numerous and warlike army, diminishing the number of his enemies and increasing that of his allies, coln; pelling Lord, Wellington either to retire from the Peninsula or to fight with that very Spanish army then under his command, and the united forces of Soult and Suchet On the 26th of March, after having secretly ratified the Treaty of Valency, Ferdinand arrived on the fromtiers of Spain. Napoleon was deprived of his throne on the 6th of April, and Ferdinand stopping at Valencia, where he received the foreign Ambassadors, Generals and Chiefs of a faction hostile to the Cortez, without the nation having expressed any determination contrary to that which it had sworn to follow, Ferdimand having concerted his scheme, and provided the means for its execution, on the 4th of May, published that fatal decree for the destruction of that compact, by which the nation had granted him the Crown. Not satisfied with the sacrifices which the people had voluntarily undergone in order to secure him a throme, more honorable than that which he had lost both bv desertion and by his resignation, prepossessed with the idea that he owed every thing to heaven, and nothing to men, and educated in ideas which made him wish to reign only over slaves; after having formed a party from among those who were stained with the foul crime of having all more or less contributed to support the throne of Joseph, he declared for the extermination of all those who had shewn the smallest disposition to unite the interests of the throne to those of the people; thus giving an example, not only of the most complete incapacity, and the basest malevolence, but of the most monstrous and horrible ingratitude. Like all tyrants in similar circumstances, his first means of vengeance were the imprisonment of all those disaffected to his government, the destruction of the freedom of the press, in order to conceal the atrocity of his conduct, and represent things as suited his purpose, promising the people a semblance of future freedom, the more ef.

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to assist in making prisoners the regents and the members of the Cortez, and to execute the -other orders of Ferdinand. It is lamentable to reflect that such a commission was executed by an officer born in a free country; such a commission he ought to have disdained to accept, and he accepted it no doubt with a view to that command which he afterwards received from Ferdinand. These facts being established, I conceive it is allowable to make such reflections as naturally arise on these great political changes in Spain, on the violent means by which Ferdinand has been raised to an empire above that of the law, as well as on the injustice with which the Spanish nation is censured for submitting to so detestable a despotism, without considering the difficulty of getting rid of a yoke once imposed, nor of the many circumstances which have conspired against Spanish liberty. It is not my intention to make all the reflections on the subject that might be expected from a historian; the limits of a pamphlet will not allow it; a few remarks will be sufficient to throw light on this business, and my principal intention is to place it in a point of view in which it may be duly examined and appreciated by others. I forbear to agitate the question, whether the legitimacy of the Spanish Goverument being acknowledged by other nations, they ought to acknowledge Ferdinand, in opposition to the constitution sauctioned by the representatives of Spain. I will content myself with saying, that if this is answered in the affirmative, it will go so far as to shake the throne of every sovereign in Europe, and give room to perpetual convulsions. Perhaps, in order to confound the Spanish constitution with the recognition of Ferdinand, they will say that no nation has a right to interfere with the intermal government of another. But this is not the matter under consideration. Without meddling with the Spanish constitution, they had no right to acknowledge Ferdinand till he had been acknowledged by the Spanish Nation, unless they will maintain that a monarch bein acknowledged to day under one state circumstances, and these circumstances remaining the same, he may be acknowledged to-morrow in a light totally different. For other nations to have acknowledged Fsiano, so unsea:onal/e a 2

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