« AnteriorContinuar »
much better footing than it had even at the voice of the people. The enormous revenue beginning of the French revolution. There- 1 of the government, which is chiefly taken fore we must admit that there is now a much from the pockets of the people, is chiefly rebetter prospect of reform in Englaod than turned into the pockets of the higher ranks, that which the French révolution seemed by whom so great a proportion of the 14for a moment to hold out to 119.--The plain | crative places are engrossed." and broad fact is this that every Englishman who has, for the last six months,
BREWERIES. heartily wished that the Spaniards sh vull SiR ;-in writing the letter on the Brewsuicceed, has knowingly and wilfully wished , eries, inseried in your Register of the 121 for a radical reform of abuses in the regular | November, my view was to rescue the intelmonarchy of Spain, and for such a change | ligent part of the trade from the aspersions of the government, as might perminently throwo on all of them, through the ignorant secure a better administration of its affairs. practices of many (herein described) who He bas, morsover, wished to see that change are engaged in that business ; and this adopted by the Spanish people themselves, chiefly by sbewing that there could be no and has admitted 010;t ainply the right tempiation to a man of understanding to of the people to call their rulers to substiinte any articles for mall and hops, account, and choose their own constitue because the latter are not only the most tion. If these happy efficts have al. suitable, but undeniably the cheapest, that ready flowed from the S;yanish revolution, can be procured. I am so desirous to avoid and are sure to spread far and wide over this obtruding on your valuable paper, that it is great country the blessings of free discus with no small degree of reluctance I once sion, watchful jealousy of the government, 1 more, and, as I hope and intend, for the and unsparing reform of existing abuses ; it last time on this subject, solicit your indulis equally manifest, that the force of the | gence to notice, as concisely as in my power, example of Spain will not be spent here, the remarks of a gentleman who signs himbut must reach over the other states of the self “ Candidus " in your Register of the Continent.
26th ult. He wishes I had stated the grounds The following passages are ertracted and the methods, whereby I formed the from the Review of Mr. Leckie's Book in ratio of the value of malt, compared with the last number :-" There is nothing, in sugar and with treacle. My answer is by deed, in political science which stands more | hydrostatics, as he supposes. He doubts in want of a philosophical investigation, iban the competency of any instrument to shew the influence of aristocracy in human so the exact ditterence between the saccharine ciety. So great a tendency has it to pre- | matter extracted from malt, and that which dominate, that, with the exception of those is attorded by a solution of sugar, es of cases in which a military leader or chief treacle, in pure water, on account of the swallows up the power both of aristocracy mucilage in the first, which, he concludes, and people, there is perhaps no instance of a affects the accuracy of the rule. This is the government, in the bistory of mankind, in (now fully exploded) objeciion which was which the power of the aristocracy did not urged against the hydroineler so long ago as exceed the proper limits, in which it was in the year 1770, by the then principal not more than a match for the power of the brewer in London in a conference which I people, and enabled the rich and leading obiained with him, on the subject; but who men to shift the burthens of the state from changed his opinion a few years afierwards, themselves upon the interior orders. --Nol and adopted the constant use of the instruwithstanding the helps provided for the peo. ment, in which he was gradually followed ple to protect their interests are, in our bap by the other considerable brewers. But the py constitution, the strongest ever actually proof of this, and also the following ques. admitted in any government, all the changes tion between usrests in distillation, of wbihI which have taken place in the testure of our shall speak hereafier. I stated that malt was common affairs, have been in favour of the 20 per cent superior tosugar, on a comparison aristocratical interest. Our system of tax- | of the produce of eich wilh their respectation, which is now so enormous a machine, / ive costs. This gentleman thinks there must decidedly, and, to a degree, infinitely greater be an advantage of 40 per cent in favour of than is generally supposed, favours the higher sugar ; without, however, offering any other orders, and throws the mighty burden upon I grounds for this opinion than his doubls the middling and the lower. The composi before-mentioned, as the effect of the mu. tion of the commons house of parliament has cilage combined with the sweet of the malt become, confessedly, less dependent upon the on the different gravities of the two musts.
There is the very serious difference of 60 per | 1807) the persons most competent to give ceut in our opinions. One of us must be them information, say in, page 4:-" It ap. under a very great error. I could, if it were " pears to the committee that taking the not rendered unnecessary by their being the price of the quarter of malt, capable of sa ne, as be will hereafter find described by “ producing 80 lbs. of saccharine matter at a scientific and practical gentleman, Mr, 1 " 82s, the quantity of sugar necessary to Martineau, to a committee of the House of " produce an equal proportion of saccha. Commons, give a series of experiments on “ rine matter must be 1 cwl. 3 qrs. 1 lb. sugar and treacle, made many years ago, “ (197 lbs.) which at 58s. * the cwi. would accompanied, also, with a set of twelve dis- “ amount to 101s. 6d. in price, making a tillations (in a still of a suitable size which “ difference in favour of the malt of I procured to be made for the purpose) of " 19s. Od. in that given quantity. It is small portions of beer formed from as many “ stated, besides, in evidence, that the beer different original specitic gravities in the " produced from sugar, even if the prices worts ; which experiment I then entered on « would admit of it, is not equal in any dewith the view to ascer ain the fact of the "gree to that produced from its equiaccordance, or not, of the final proportion « valent quantity of malt, and conteof proof spirit with the original gravity, as quently that the lrtwer would not use shewn by the hydrometer; due reference “ sugur in their manufactory, unless they being had to all the circumstances. There. were prohibited ly law from using grain." sults of each, and of all of these examinations, lo page 16; Mr Jackson commissioner did so remarkably correspond with the seve of excise, examined by the committee, ral circunstances as to afford the most con says, “ I recollect that about the year vincing testimony to my mind that every “ 1800 or 1801, when sugar was by law hydrometer, now in use, is truly and cor- | “ permitted to be used in the brewery, on rectiy, a measure of sweets, although that “ account of the scarcity of grain at ibat appellation is given to one oniy, among “ lime, very little sugar was used. One the several sorts now constructed. But I “ or two brewers in London, two at Manmust not expect that my own experiments, " chester, and some at Liverpool, were and consequent decisioa will be deemed of " the only brewers I recollect to have used suiticient authority to be conclusive with " it, and they very soon discontinued it. others. I am happy, therefore, in the op. " The price of malt at that time was, as far portunity to adduce far superior proof, pre 1 “ as I recollect, five guincas a quarter, and mising, that the average value of each 8 " sugar, including the duty, about 525. the bushels of malt is known as annually, to every " cwi." In page 20, Mr. Martineau, an brewer who has employed an hyd:ometer eminent porter brewer in London, exami. for a sufficient iime to understand its uses. ved, and to questions put to him sans, I say, annually, because the produce of "I have never brewed beer from sugar, but saccharine maiter varies with the favourable- ' “ have made such experiments as to con: ness of the harvest and season to the bar- " vince my own mind, completely." And ley; as well as very materially according to being desired to state the opinion he had the method of malting it. But a quarter of formed in consequence, said: “I have a very malt, weighing from 3c0lbs. to 336lbs., « short statement shewing the compare usually yields from 75 to 80lbs. of saccha- " live value of malt with sugar, and of mo. sine mater. A like quantity and no more " lasses with malt," Mr. Martineau then is afforded by 185lbs. to lg lbs. of sugar, I delivered in the following paper to the com. or by 224 to 2.0lbs. of treacle. The pro. miltee, which was read." December 14, duce of the last two is foupd merely by a " 1799, experiments on a sample of brosa solution of them in waters; and finally, the " Muscovado sugar at 53s. 3d. per cwl., and separate value of all the three is found by rt the same on a sample of molasses at 40s. the production of spiril, uniformly corte- ar per cwt. One pound of the above sugar ponding with the gravities of their extracts, " was dissolved in a gallon of water, and or soruiions. The evidence I have alluded to " then boiled half an hour, it lost by evapoistaken from a parliamentary “ Report of the " ration rather more than a quart, which " Sugar Distillery Committee,” ordered by " quantity being restored with cold water, the house to be printed 17th February, 1 807. " and reduced to the heat of 60 degrees, it The object being to inquire how far relief Dight be afforded to the West Iodia proprie- || o My estimate of the price of sogar was tors by the use of sugar in the breweries 61s, and any quantity 196 lbs. the cost of and distilleries, the committee afier having which would be 100s. 9d. I believe it is now examined (from the 2d to the 13th Jan. 1. dearer than 61s.
"" then weighed by: Quin's hydrometer 141bs. | worts, and of their wash, as ascertained by " 8-10ths." (consequently) “ 75lbs, of the hydrostatics, from whatsoever saccharing “ same extract, which is abo'rt the fair aver and fermentable matters such musts and " age produce of a quarter of malt would con wash, are drawn.--Other parliamentary “ sume 185lbs, of sugar, which, at 535, 3d. inquiries and reports on the same subject " per cwt. is 87s. 5d. One pound cf mo might be adduced, in confirmation, par
lasses treated exactly as the sugar bad been ticularly the first, second, and third " weighed by the same instrument 12lbs Reports of the Committees on the Dis" 4-10hs ; therefore 75lbs. of the same ex tillation of Sugar, ordered to be printed 66 tract would consume 216 lbs. oftreacle, 15th June 1808, any part of which it must be " which at 403, the cwt is 77s. 1d." To unnecessary to quote. I cannot however reother questions put to him by the committee, I frain from stating the following proof that Mr. Martineau answered, “ that he took the mucilage is of no consideration, to de" not the best malt; that such malt as would stroy the brewer's confidence in the com" yield 80lbs. of saccharine matter per | petency of hydrometers to exhibit a just " quarter would require an equivalent of comparison between sweets. In the years « 197lbs. of sugar, and 230lbs. in treacle ; | 1805 and 1806, three gentlemen, distin" that he never tried either sugar in molas | guished for their abilities, and well known “ ses in brewing, being so perfectly satis. 3cquirements in chemistiy, (viz. Drs. "fied, by the result of the experiments that | Thompson, Hope, and Coventry) were se" they made so completely against the lected by governient to inquire into the dit. " use of sugar, that he never was induced |ferences in value between the English and " to try it in the brewhouse."-Candidus Scotch barleys and malts, for which purpose may still think “ that it is not philosophical they took with them some practical assistants “ to conclude, (even from this useful ex
to conduct the operations of both brewing " amination by Mr. Martineau), that the and distilling. I have unfortunately parted " extract of malt must necessarily be richer
with their very valuable Report, printed by " and superior to the others.” Such how.
order of parliament, containing the particuever, was the conclusion of the committee,
lars of numerous trials made by them. I in their report to the house ; and who will recollect enough, however, to be able to say depreciate the further proof that is afforded that their uniform rule, for finding the dif. by distillation? In pages 22, 24 of this References between the two grains, was by the port will be found the examination of Mr. | gravity of their extracts, as shewn by the Smith of Brentford, and of Mr. Benwell i hydrometers of various constructions. From of Battersea, both very eminent, and which gravities, and the constant agreement extensive distillers. They state is the of the produce of spirit with them, they " then prices, (in January 1807) of 1 formed a numerical rule for ascertaining at " the different materials suitable to their once, the proportion of alcohol, and con" use, to be barley at 445. and malt sis. the i sequently of spirits of every degree of strength, " quarter, and sugar 615. to 635. the cwt. | producable from every given gravity of must. " but that the price of sugar should be from The operation of their ihns discovered (de. “ 325. to 333. to induce the distillers to use cimal) muliiplicator on the gravity of muist " that article in their trade, and that even taken with the attendant circumstances, " then the spirit distilled would not be as the multiplicant, affords such very close “ either of so good a quality as that distilled agreement with the evidences in the above " from malt and barley, or so disposable in “ parliamentary reports" as to remove every " the market. Also, that to tempt the particle of doubt, as to the conclusions to be " distillers to use molasses it should (to | drawn in the present question. One other " bear a proportion to barley at 44s. and remark calls on me to be noticed, or that " mali at 8is. the quarter) bear the price a third wort of Tolbs per barrel cannot " of 24s. the cut, and even then the mo- be so valuable as a third part of the first wort “ lasses is considered a worse article in the of 30lbs per barrel, because the latter con" distillery than sugar." Now the judges | tains a less proportion of mucilage to the ment of these gentlemen, and by which / sweets than the last worts.” Agreed ; but they govern their practice in business, is what then would be the produce of a founded on the actual produce of ardent fourth liquor on the grains, which, spirit obtained from the different quantities according to the inference, would coll. of the several materials, and which, as was tain a suill larger proportion of mucilage observed in my letter at page 770 of your to the sweet? I say that this produce from Register, is well known to thein to be ever the previous exhaustion of the grains would in a ratio to the original gravity of their not exceed, in mucilage and saccharine malo
ter combined, 2 or at the most 3!bs. per tenances then lately erected and built near quarter which is a quality that is inapplica- | the Mills on the banks of the River Wer. ble to form any sort of beer. And even in within the said manor, then in the occupathese 2 or 3lbs. not the mucilage, but the tion of John Bardow', Esq.; and all those remnant of saccharum, constitutes the whole two Iron Mills erected on the banks of the of ihe nutritive quality, without which the said river and near the said last mentioced refuse (usually left in ihe grains) would not | messuage or tenement, and then in the deserve the low price at which it is sold. occupation of the said Jono Bardow, and With every sentiment of respect towards vised by him in the Iron and Steel Maouthis evidently able, though misiaken gentle. | facture ; and all those warehouses, store, man, I appeal to himself whether the testi- houses, smith's shop, and all other build. mony of the several scientific, practical, and ings thereto belonging or therewith used; truly respectable men I have quoted, from which said messuages, mills, warehouses, such unquestionable authority, is or is not and storehouses, were buildings which re conclusive? And if so, it is surely fair to quired to be repaired and rebuilt, and were ask wbat becomes of the alledged advantage of greater yearly value than the naner, of 40 per cent. in favour of sugar; and, also, lands, park, and other premises above mene which of us is it who “has advanced an opi- tioned ; together with all meadow's, page " nion that will not stand the test of rigid tures, lands, enements, profits, rights, « examination?"-I am, Sir, yours, very res liberties, privileges, jinmunities, hereditapectfully, - A HAMPSHIRE Brewek- ments, and appurtenances to the said ma. Dec. 5, 1808,
nor or lordship, manors or lordships, lapds. P.S.-On your account, Nr. Cobbelt, as park, messuages, mills, and other build. well as my own, I decline all future public ings and editices, or any parcel of them or discussion of this subject. But if this res: any of them appertaining or in any manner pectable gentleman wishes to know me, he belonging ; (excepting nevertheless and almay satisfy his curiosity by addressing a letter ways reserving all great trees, timber trees, to M. B. (with bis own name and address) saplings, woods, underwoods, mines, and at No. 11, Princes Street, Cavendish Square, 1 quarries, growing or being in or upon the which shall be noticed in return to him, with said premises or any of them); to hold the all respectful attention.
same unto the said Henry earl of Lincoln
his executors, administrators, and assigns, Duke of YORK.-An Act to enable His from the 5th Jan. 1784, (at which time a
Majesty to grant the Inheritance, in Fee former term then in being would expire),
Simple, of certain Manors, Messuages, for the term of 26 years, at the yearly rent * Lands, and Hereditaments, in the Pal of €15. 35. 8d. And whereas his presept
rishes of Byfleet, Weylsridge, Wallon, | majesty, by letters patent bearing date the Walton Leigh, and Chertsey, in the Courie 300 Oct. 1773, for the considerations there ty of Surry, to His Royal Highness Free in mentioned, did demise, grant, and to derick Duke of York and Albany, for a farm let, unto the said Henry then duke of valualile Consideration. Passed the gik | Newcastle, all and singular the said manor, March, 1804.
or lordship, manors or lordships, park, Whereas his late majesty king George II. | messuages, &c. &c. comprized in and de. by letters patent bearing date the 11th June, mised by the said herein-before mentioned 1700, for the consideration therein men. letters patent of the 11th June, 1760, with tioned, did dernise, grant, and to farm let, their and every of their rights, royalties, unto Henry then earl of Lincoln and after members, and appurtenances (except as in vards duke of Newcastle, all that the the said herein-before mentioned letters pamanor or lordship, manors or lordships, tent is excepted), to hold the same anto and lands, of Byfleet and Weybridge, and the said Henry duke of Newcastle,his executhe park of Byfleet called Byfleet or Wey- tors, &c. for a rever ionary term of 13 bridge Park, or lying and being in Byfleet years, to be computed from the 5th Jan. and Weybridge, with all and singular the 1810 (at which time the before-mentioned appurtenances, in the county of Surry, to- term of 26 years would expire), at the gether with the capital messuage or tene- yearly rent of £15. 35. 8d. theretofore pay. ment, stables, and other outhouses thereto able, and an increased rent of £2. 16s. 4d. belonging, then in the occupation of James (making toge!her £18) until the 5th Jan. Incebird ; and all that messuage or tenement | 1810, and at the yearly rent of £50 for with the appartenances then in the occupa the first 13 years of the said reversionary pation of Joseph Spence; and all that term of 131 years, to commence from the messuage or tenement with the appur. said 5th Jan, 1810, and at the rent of £25
for the last half-year of the said reversionary | customs, rights, jurisdictions, liberties, term : and whereas his said present majesty, franchises, privileges, profits, commodities, by other letters patent bearing date the 7th advantages, emoluments, and hereditaments Aug. 1780, did demise, grant, and to farm whatsoever, of whaisoever nature, kind, let, unto the Rev. R. Palmer, D.D. and or specie the same were or by whatsoever Thomas Hurst, gent., all that inanor of names soever they were known, understood, Walton Leigh in Surry, with all and singular called, or were theretofore known, situate, its rights, members, and appurtenances, lying, and being, coming or arising or and all those rents of the free tenants there, growing within the manor therein-before by a particular thereof amounting yearly to I mentioned, or within the village, town £3. 03. 710.; and all those rents of the fields, or places or parish of Wilton Leigh tenants by copy of court roll, and at the and Walton-upon-Thames in the said county will of the lord there, by a particular there. of elsewhere, whatsoever to the said manor, of amounting yearly to €10. Os. gd.; and messuages, lands, tenements, &c. in any. all those messuiages, lands, and tenements, I wise belonging or appertaining, happening in the hands of the said tenants by copy of or appending, or as part, parcel, or memcourt roll, and at will under the yearly rents ber of the same manor, messuages, lands, aforesaid, and all that annual or fee farm tenements, and other the said premises or rent of 35. a year, issuing out of the lands any of them, had, taken, accepted, occoand tenements theretofore granted to E. Por pied, used, or reputedl, and also the reverter; and all that scite of the manor of sion or reversions, remainder or remain. Walton Leigh and all demesne lands there ders whatsoever of the said manor and the with their and every of their appurtenances, said lands, &c. depending, happening, or by a particular thereof mentioned to be of in expectancy, from, in, or upon any de. the yearly rent or value of £10. 18s.; and mise or grant, demises or grants, for term all that increased rent there, by a particular or terins of life, lives, or years, or other. thereof amounting vearly to 93. 3d ; and all | wise of the same premises or any parcel that common five there, by a particular thereof, of record or not of record; and thereof amounting yearly to 25. ; and all also all and singular rents and yearly profits those perquisites of courts there, one year whatsoever reserved upon every demise or with another, by a particular thereof valued i grant of the same premises or any parcel and estimated at €5. 11s. 11d. a year ; thereof (excepting nevertheless and always which said manor of Walton Leigh and reserving to bis majesty, his heirs and suc. other the premises last above-mentioned, cessors, all lands, tenements, and here. by a particular thereof were mentioned to ditaments, then or theretofore being or re. be parcel of the possessions theretofore pur. | puted to be parcel of the said manor of chased of Giles Leigh, esq., and annexed to Walton Leigh wiich were inclosed in Oat. the honour of Harnpton Court , and all and į lands Park, or in any other of his majesty's singular messuages, mills, houses, edifices, parks, or reserved for the depasturing of the structures, baros, stables, dovehouses, or fallow deer and wild beasts, and also all chards, gardens, lands, tenements, mea- other lands, &c. in Walton Leigh aforesaid dows, feedings, pastures, coinmons, com. į or within the precinct of the said manor nion of pasture, demesne landi, glebe lands, of Walton Leigh, which were theretofore wastes, furżes, heaths, moors, marshes, I purchased by any of his said present maadvantages, profits, witers, water-courses, jesty's progenitors or ancestors, kings or fisheries, fishings, suits, sokes, mulcis, 1 queens of England, or any other person or warrens, rents, reversions, and services, persons whatsoever, besides the said Giles rent charges, rents seck, and rents and ser Leigh only ; and also excepting and always vices, as well of the free as customary te. reserving all great trees, woods, under. nants, tenants works, farms, fee farms, woods, knights fees, wards, marriages, annuities, reliefs, heriots, fines, amercia. mines, anu quarries of the said premises, ments, courts leet, views of frank pledge of and all timber trees, and fair saplings apt court and leet, and leets perquisites and and fit for timber, and sufficient staddles profits, and all things which to courts' leet growing in and upon the said premises ; and view of frankpledge belong or apper and also all and singular advowsons, treo tain, chattels, waifs, estrays, goods and donations, dispositions, and right of pachattels of felons and fugitives, felons of tronage of all and singular rectories, vica. themselves and put in exigent, bondmen, rages, chapels, and other ecclesiastical bepatives and villains, with their sequels, esto- netices whatsoever to the same premises or vers, and com.non of estovers, fairs, mare | any parcel of the same belonging, apper. kets, tolls, exemption from paying toll, taining, happening, or appeoding) ; and