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employed in idle conjectures, the father, of the country, your magistrates, and the chief, who has repeatedly conducted you to glorious triu, uphs, were incessantiy occupied in devising the best means for maintaining your character, interest, and tranquility.—From an examination of the contents of all the dispatches, it appears, that the emperor of the French has been compelled to recognise the absolute independence of the Spanish monarchy, and also that of all its transma. rine possessions, without retaining or dismembering the minutest pertion of its dominions ; and to maintain the unity of re. ligion, our properties, laws, and usages, which guarantee the future prosperity of the nation; and though the fate of the monarchy was not entirely decided, the cortes were sunmoned to meet at Bayonne on the 13th of June last, whither the deputies of cities, and other persons of all ranks in Spain, were repairing, to the number of one hundred aid fifty.—His imperial and royal majesty after applanding your triumphs and constancy, exhorts you to maintain with energy tho High opinion which you have acquired by yoor -lour and loyalty, offering you at the same title succours of every description ; and I Love . . hesitated to assure him in reply, that to fidcity of this city to its lawful sovereign is the character which chiefly distinguishes it, and that I shall thankfully admit every description of aid, consisting of arms, am. monition, and Spanish troops. In times so calcinitous nothing can so much conti. bute to your security as union and coincidence of sentiment on a point so inteteresting to the public bappiness. Let us imitate the example of our aucestors in this happy land, who wisely escaped the doasters that afflicted Spain in the war of th: Succession, by awaiting the fate of the muther country, to obey the legitimate authority which occupied the sovereignty.—Meinwhile not possessing orders sufficiently authoritative, to countermand the royal ced:las of the supreme council of the Indies for proclaiming and taking the oaths to Don Ferdinand VII. as already announced in my proclamation of the 31st of July, I have reselved that those measures shall be proceeded in with the forms and solemnities already agreed upon, flattering myself that in the midst of the public rejoicings and happiness we shall prepare ourselves for new triumphs. (To be continued )

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and at length in so serious a degree, that
the legislature of the nation has thought it
necessary to withdraw our citizens and pro-"
perty from it, either to avoid or to prepare
for engaging in the general contest. But
for this timely precaution, the petitioners
and their property might now have been in
the hands of spoilers, who have laid aside
all regard to moral right. Withdrawing
from the greater evil, a lesser one has been
necessarily encountered, and certainly, could
the legislature have made provision against
this also, I should have had great pleasure,
as the instrument of its execution, but it
was it impracticable, by any general and just
rules, to prescribe in every case the best
resource against the inconveniences of this
new situation. The difficulties of the
crisis will certainly fall with greater pressure
on some description of citizens than others,
and on none perhaps with greater than on
our seafaring brethren. Should any means
of alleviation occur within the range of
my duties, I shall with certainty advert
to the situation of the petitioners, and in
availing the nation of their services, aid
them with a substitute for their former oc-
cupation. I salute them and yourself with
sentiments of sincere regård.-1.10s. JEF-
ri. R.S.C. N.
BUENos. AYR Es. Proclai, ution by Don
Santiago Liniers y Bremond, Viceroy,
Governor, and Provincial Captain-Gene-
ral of the Provinces of the Rio de la Plata,
&c. Dated Buenos Ayres, Aug. 15, 1809.
Brave and faithful inhabitants of Buenos
Ayres.—Since the arrival of the last vessel
from Cadiz, bringing advices of the events
which have occurred in our mother country,
relative to the abdication of the crown, exe-
cuted by our beloved monarch, Charles IV.
and his son Ferdinand VII. and the remo-
val of the whole of the royal family to France,
I consider you as anxious to fix your opiuion
wpon a matter in which your loyalty is so
deeply interested. This anxiety must have
been greatly increased by the arrival of the
French agent, who brought over various dis-
patches for this supreme government. The cla-
incurs of the unthinking have reduced your ac-
credited enthusiasm to a state of irresolution.
The not immediately declaring to you the ob-
ject of his mission may, perhaps, have appear-
ed to you a want of considence very contrary to
that which I place in you, and which your
patrictism has merited. But whilst you were

**------- o
Pointed by Cox and Baylis, Great Gueen Street;

published by R. Bagshaw, Brydges Street, Corent

ca.<<1, wis, win. Numbels may be had sold also by J. Budd, Crown and Mitre, Pall-Mall.

Vol. XIV. No. 23.] LONDON, SATURDAY, DECEMBER 3, 1808. [Price iod.

“Sir Arthur Wellesley, in fact, privately protested against the Armistice, in the strongest terms; he dis“tinctly declared his objections to the Commander-in-Chief, and tried all in his power to prevent him from

“granting the terrtis he did to the enemy. “whatever in writing the Armistice.

Sir Arthur Wellesley neither approved of, nor had any concern It was negociated with Kellerman, by Sir Hew Dairymple himself,

“ and was afterwards signed by Sir Arthur Wellesley, in obedience to the positive order of Sir Hew Dalrym

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MoRNING Post (or Nabobs' Gazette), Sept. 22, 1808.

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SUMMARY OF POLITICS.

- Court of INau IRY.—If there can be any such thing as unquestionable pre-emimence in absurdity, it is this thing, now going on at Chelsea. Flinging stones against the wind; eating hasty-pudding with an awl; drinking out of a bottomless pot; singing to the deaf; asking questions of the dumb ; exhibiting pictures to the blind': all these, and every other thing that ever was seen, or heard of, yields to this matchless absurdity. A court, destitute of all legal form and authority; the members of which are under no obligation to perform or to abstain from performing any thing; destitute of the power to demand evidence or compel attendance; destitute of the power of putting any question upon oath, of enforcing obedience to any one of its counnands, of issuing its censure, and even of pronouncing judgment, in any manner whatever, which, if hostile to the feelings of the party adjudged, would not, according to the present practice, subject it to a criminal prosecution for a libel. Is this the sort of Inquiry, of which the Rev. Edmund Poulter was speaking, when he came forward, at the Hampshire meeting, and, upon the express authority of Mr. Sturges Bourne, assured the people present, that an Inquiry, of the most satisfactory description was then actually instituted 2 Is this the sort of Inquiry, to which the king was advised to allude, and which the partizans of the ministry, asserted to have been promised, in the king's famous and never-to-be-forgotten Answer to the city of London 2 Is this the sort of Inquiry that will, or that can, satisfy the indignant nation ? Be it remembered, that the king, in the answer which he was so ill-advised as to make to the city of London, referred them to recent occurrences, as a proof of his being, at all times, ready to institute

Inquiries, in cases where the interests of the

nation and the honour of his arms were concerned. What were those occurrences 2 Why, the trials of Sir Robert Calder and of General IWhitelocke, though, I hope, the former will excuse me for naming them in

[806 the same sentence. Rut, observe, there was, in neither of those cases, a “ Court of “Inquiry.” The former, though he had. with an inferior force, beat the enemy and taken two of their ships, was sent, like the latter, who, with a superior force, had been shamefully beaten ; the former, like the latter, was sent, at once, to a court martial; a court invested with all the powers appertaining to criminal jurisdiction, not excepting that of sentencing the accused to suffer death. Well, then, these being the recent occurrences minifestly alluded to in the king's Answer, had we not a right to expect, that the men, now accused, would have been tried in a similar way 2 And can there be a doubt, in the mind of any man, what was the real olject, which the ministers, or part of them at least, had in view, when they advised the king to give such as Auswer, and to make, in that Answer, such an allusion —The result of this court will be, the collection and publication of a mass of matter equal in bulk to that of the Old and New Testament; a mass that no man will ever have the patience to read ; and a mass, which, I will venture to assert, wiki, in the minds of the nation, leave the question of guilt, or innocence, just where it now is. Of course, it will leave the complained-of grievance unredressed, and the people, in their different districts, will, if they be not bullied or corrupted into silence, renew their applications to the throne, or to the parliament, or to both, for a legal and rigid Inquiry. In the meanwhile, the public should, it appears to me, seize upon, and treasure up, certain prominent facts that are transpiring at Chelsea, casting aside all that mass of detail, all that insignificant babble, all that miserable small-talk, dignified with the name of evidence, which can possibly be of no other earthly use, than that of bewildering and confusing their minds.--First then, it appears, suppositig Sir Arthur Wellesley now to speak the truth, that all the numerous and positive assertions, made, as will be seen, in part, from my motto, in the Morning Post, and by the friends of Sir Arthur - - 3. E

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before the public (as relating to this Protest) in the shape of letters from officers of high rank and reputation in the army;" all the numerous extracts of this sort; all the assertions about Sir Arthur Wellesley being forty miles distant from the scene of negociation; all, all and every one of these assertions, are now, from Sir Arthur's, from the reported protestor's, own lips, proved to be lies. Observe, as connected with this point, an assertion of Sir Hew Dalrymple: that a paper, from England, was actually circulated in the army, to the same, or nearly the same, purport with these now-acknowledged iies. Sir Arthur Wellesley denies having had any hand in the promulgation of either; but, as my correspondent, R. L. in a late number, very pertinently asks, why did not Sir Arthur, who “ came home on leave of absence” so long before Sir Hew was “ recasted ;" why did not Sir Arthur, give a contradiction to these atrocious calumnies against his absent Commander-in-Chief, especially as the evident and necessary tendency of them was, to exculpate himself at the expence of that absent commander No : it may be, that he had, himself, no hand in hatching, or in promulgating, those malignant lies; but, I may venture to leave any man of sound moral principles to judge, how far, under such circumstances, to wink at such lies makes him an accomplice with those, by whom they were hatched and promulgated. Had I been in the place of Sir Arthur Wellesley, I should, I hope, upon landing at Plymouth, and upon finding how things stood at home, instantly, before I got into my chaise; before I saw the face of the ministers; have taken care to send to the most rapid and most extensive channels of circulation, a declaration of my opinion, “ that “ the Convention was a wise measure ; but, “ that, at any rate, whatever degree of “ blame it merited, a full share of it was “ mine, I having assisted at the negociation, “ the Commander-in-Chief having done no“ thing of importance without my advice “ and concurrence, and I, so far from pro* testing against the Armistice, having most “ heartily approved of it.” It appears to Ine, that this is what I should have done. I think, l could not have slept an hour, 'till I had done this. It is certainly what honour, truth, and justice demanded; and it certainly is what was not done The next point worth particularly attending to is this: that, it now appears, from a document, produced by Sir Hew Dalrymple, that he, by the instruction of Lord Castlereagh, was to do no

thing without consulting Sir Arthur Welles. ley. More was meant than met the ear, in this case, and that Sir Hew would clearly perceive. What a man must be made of, to accept of a command on such conditions, I will leave the reader to say ; but, the fact clearly enough is, that it was meant, that Sir Arthur Wellesley, who was the sevent; in command ; who had six senior officers over him, should, in reality be the Commander-in-Chief; that his should be all the praise that might become due ; his all the renown ; and, as far as saving appearances would permit, his all the reward, of every sort. Accordingly, it is said, and I have i: ; from no bad authority, that the head of the high family is offended, that Sir Arthur is not created Piscount Vimeira ! To this conduct, on the part of the ministers, and of Lord Castlereagh in particular; this creating of an unnatural sway, a confusion and corflict of authorities, where nominal rank was set in opposition to confidential trust; to this unwarrantable partiality; this poisonons in : fluence at horne, no small part of the indelble disgrace, and of all its consequent mischiefs, may, probably, be attributed; and, all other points apart, the having instructed a Commander-in-Chief to be, in fact, ruled by an inferior officer, being the seventh in: command, is not only a fair, but necessan; subject of parliamentary inquiry; for, coi of two things must be : either the nominal Commander-in-Chief was, by the ministers, thought incapable of that post, or he was, without any necessity, insulted and disgraced from motives of favouritism towards another. The next point, meriting the notice of the public, is, that it now appears, from the statement of Sir Hew 1)alrymple, that the whole of the documents, reit *ng to the disgraceful Convention, were transmitted to Lord Castlereagh in the Freri lons uage. Men of spirit; men who had felt, as they ought to have felt, upon such an oc. casion ; men, who had had a proper notice of what honour required, and who had had the wisdom to perceive the great effect, which, in certain cases, is produced by apparently trifling causes; such men would not, in the face, and under the very noses, of the Portuguese nation, have put their hands to any decument in the French language, though, after acknowledging the legitimacy of the title of the “ Dor d'Abi antes,” and of the “Emperor No. “ poleon I.” this is hardly worth notice. So it was, however; the documents were not only drawn up, and signed, in the French language; but, in that language they were all sent home to Lord Castlereagh. Now,

then, let that Lord explain to an abused and most grossly insulted nation, how, for what reasons, from what motives, he came. to cause the Armistice, the only document signed by Sir Arthur Wellesley, to be published to the people of England in the French language only, while all the other documents were published in the English language only. From the first, this was a great point with me; because, until this distinction appeared, there was no reason, that I could perceive, of suspecting the ministers of a disposition to do any thing that was wrong, or unfair. Froin this distinction, I did begin to suspect unfair intentions, Yet, until now, there might be a doubt; because, until now, we were not quite certain, that all the documents came home in the same tanguage. Now we are certain as to that fact ; and, there can be, I think, but very little difierence of opinion as to the motive, whence all the other documents were translated for publication, while that one, that one which alone bore the name of Sir Arthur Wellesley, was published in French. The next thing, towards which the public should, in my opinion, direct their attention, is the statement of Sir Hew Dalrymple, accompanied with documents to prove, that, after a few days' consideration, the Portuguese expressed their pleasure at, and their gratitude for, the Conventier : to ough, at first, they had loudly condemned it; whence it is meant, that we should draw an inference favourable to that measure, which has, in this country, been so decidedly and so generally condemned. But, Sir Hew Dairytople, before he prevails upon me to adopt this inference, must show me, that this change of language proceeded from some new lights, which the Portuguese had received upon the subject; he must let me see the grounds of their change of opinion ; he must convince me that their reasoning was correct; and, above all things, he must convince me, that the persons, who had, at first, expressed opinions hostile to the Convention, were not under the smallest apprehension, that a continuation of that hostility might be attended with disagreeable consequences to themselves. I reme uber an English Hoose of Cormonons, who, on one day, by an almost unanimous vote, did, upon a motion of the minister (Mr. Addington) decide in the at: rmative relating to a certain tax; and who, when, on the morrow, the same minister, proposed to negative that same proposition, did, without any division, or opposition at all, give their vote in the said negative. We, who were not born yesterday, know too much of the means, by which

approving letters and addresses are sometimes, and particularly in cases of emergency, obtained, to lay much stress upon such documents; and, we know, that, in the present case, there existed, as to the disapprobation, no undue influence at all; and that the Portuguese, whether right or wrong in their opinions, had no temptation, when they first heard of the Convention, to say what they did not think—We now come to the wonderfully magnified numbers of the French army. It has been stated, it appears, before the Court of Inquiry, that the number embarked amounted to twenty-five thousand men. It is not averred, that these were all soldiers ; that they were all persons bearing arms, or capable of bearing arms ; but, as the public must have observed, and with no small degree of surprize and indignation, all the generals, and others, who have been called upon to state their opinions as to the expediency of the Convention, have reasoned upon this fact, relating to numbers, as if all the persons embarked were actually so many capable of being brought into the field of battle. Now, if this were so, is it probable, that Junot would, in the first instance, have met Sir Arthur Wellesley with no greater a force than fourteen thousand men Is this probable And, then, when he actually ... go iated, he had, if this new edition of numbers could be believed, more fighting men than our army consisted of, even after the arrival of Sir Hew Dalrymple and Sir Harry Burrard. Nay, when Sir John Moore arrived, and he did not arrive till after the Armistice was signed, our whole army, even then, amounted to only one-sixth more than that of the “ Duc “ d'Abrantes " is now made to amount to, he having all the fortresses and strong holds and positions, not only at his command, but in his possession. I appeal to the sense and judgment of the reader, whether Junot . would have dared to make an offer of evacuation under such circumstances So much as to the reason of the case; but, Sir Arthur Wellesley, in his dispatch, told us, that he defeated “ the W. 101.1, of the ‘‘ French force, commanded by the Dese “ of Abrantes in person;" and, indeed, that the whole, or very nearly the whole, of the effective force was that day in the field, there can be very little doubt. It is barefaced hypocricy to affect to believe, that Junot, who had so much time for preparation ; who had the choice of time as well as of place; whom it so evidently behoved to have driven our first-advancing battalions into the sea ; who had received a check on the

day before ; and who had all his means at -his back and completely at his command : it is barefaced hypocricy to affect to believe, : that such a Commander, so situated, would march to the attack of superior numbers leaving nearly half of his efficient force in a state of inactivity. Besides, the reader will not fail to bear in mind, that, when the news of the Convention first reached England, it was asserted, by the friends of Sir Arthur Wellesley, that “if he had not “ been prevented from following up his “victory of the 21st, the WHOLE French “ army must inevitably have been destroy“.. ed.” Now, either this was a falsehood ; it was, from beginning to end, a lie, invented for the purpose of raising Sir Arthur Wellesley in the public estimation, at the expence of Sir Harry Burrard's reputa: ...tion ; either this was a foul and malignant lie ; or, it is not true that Junot ever had, after the landing of any part of our army, twenty-five thousand effective men under his command. It is curious to observe, how this French army is raised, or lowered, as the purposes demand. They were nothing, when the purpose was to persuade the public, that Sir Harry Burrard was guilty of the crime of preventing Sir Arthur Wellesley from putting an end to them ; “destroying the whole of them,” after the manner of Captain Bobadil ; , but, now, when the purpose is to defend the Convention, it being no longer to be denied, that Sir Arthur Wellesley had a principal share in making that instrument; now, the French army was very numerous, nearly twice as strong as the army with which Sir Arthur beat them. It is ; it is, say what they will, the old story of the Buckram Men revived. The reader will see, that, at Chelsea, there is great stress laid upon the state of the army's provisions. Provisions, we are told, were not to be got on shore, in Portugal, and those, which we had on board, it was difficult to land. I have asked this question before, but I will ask again : how did the “ Duc d'Abrantes; ” how did Wellesley's Tartar Duke ; how did he obtain provisions He had, they now tell us, twenty-five thousand men; he had long load them there ; he had had no communiwation with the sea ; he had even the Russian fleet to feed, besides his own army. How did he, who had all the people for enemies; how did he obtain his supplies of provisions, in this sad barren country, and wot only enough for the time being, but enough to horde up stores for the long lingerog siege, which our heroes apprehended ; 1 and in tribulation for an answer to this

have our English luxuries, let us, in the

question ; but, I have not yet heard it put by any of the great captains, now sitting in the Court at Chelsea. The truth is, that our generals appear to have eyes wonderfully adapt. ed to the discovering of difficulties and obstructions. We have often been amuse: with descriptions of the miserable state ci the French armies ; the shoe-less, hat-less, shirt-less state of the “wretched conscripts, “ whom Napoleon lends to battle in chains" || But, somehow or other, these wretches do fight and get on. They feed on the air, pet. haps ; but, certain it is, that they live; the find something to eat and to drink. Alas' Buonaparte has generals, who can shift, for a while at least, without port wine and fether-beds ; and he has, of course, soldier, who follow their example. To hear th: miserable excuses of a scarcity of provisions, j. want of horses and carriages, want of can non, and the like, is truly deplorable, at : time when we have just been witnessing the campaigns in Austria, Moravia, and Poland 1 campaigns, at one half of the battles o which, in the midst of winter, Frenchmen bred up under a southern climate, foughtu, 1. to their knees in ice aird snow, at the end of a march, which had left them scarcely shoe to their foot, and in which hardship, the officers had shared with the men. this is to be our manner of making was if to go into the field of battle, we muo

name of common sense, give up the th at once; withdraw from the contest ; st at home in ale-houses and barracks; kee, guard over the prisoners taken by the sk. and valour of the navy; and no longer ex. pose ourselves to the scorn and derision to so the world. These are the points, which as far as the proceedings have hitherto got and been published, have chiefly attracte: my attention. Out of the circumstances of Sir Arthur Wellesley's command, however, there arises a question or two, which an worthy of great attention. Whether the officer received the usual sum given to com: manders of expeditions for their out-fit, to gether with the staff-pay and enormous al. lowance of a lieutenant general command. ing in chief, including bat and forage me ney, which last alone would, I imagine, amount to, at least, five hundred pounds

There it, too, it has been publicly stated

another general, employed upon the staff of the same army; I mean the brother of Leo Castlereagh, who, along with the pay are enoluments of a major general, tal and f. tage money, &c. &c. receives pay, agrees. bly to the report laid before the House of Commons, as an under secretary of slau,

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