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pelled to retreat to their towns, and there became victors. And we now learn that these brave Spaniards hesitate perhaps prudently, to attack Marshal Ney's corps on the Ebro. Although according to the acsounts given in the newspapers, their army is three times as numerous as the French, and possesses besides alarge proportion of regulars. As an answer to your representation of what I said with respect to distressing the inhabitants of Lisbon, I shall state what I did say: “ there was no great reason to believe that a French army would starve, while there were between 2 and 300,000 Portuguese inhabitants in Lisbon ; people whom we went to assist not to distress, to defend and not to assail ;" and if Junot was to be reduced by blockade, the inhabitants of Lisbon would first suffer by want of provisions, whatever number of gibbets Dalrymple might erect round Junot's camp. Is it even a very great infraction of the laws of war for a general to subsist his army at the expence of the inhabitants who are his enemies I beg leave to remind you of the manner in which you have treated this subject in some of your former Registers. In order, however, to remove every pretext for cavil, I will suppose myself to have said, that in the event of assault, every ball the English fired would kill more Portuguese than French ; and that Junot would not have been restrained by the feelings of humanity from practising any species of torture and cruelty on the inhabitants, friends or foes, in order more successfully to resist the attack of the English.You say that for our general to refrain from attacking them on that account is the determination of a coward. “What did not Junot well know, that at last he must become really responsible for all the cruelties he committed upon the people of Lisbon?” Is Duhesme restrained through fear of the consequenues from distressing the inhabitants of Barcelona 2 And did not the celebrated Earl of Peterborough and sir Cloudesley Shovel hesitate to attack this Barcelona, the inhabitants being in the interest of Charles, and not daring to lift a hostile finger, because, as they affirmed, they were overawed by the duke de Popoli's garrison of 5000 men 2 Was general Schmettau to be intimidated by threats from burning the fine suburbs of Dresden, and otherwise distressing its inhabitants, when Marshal Daun appeared before it with the whole of his army after his victory at Hoehkirchen And was Daun considered a coward, for not attacking, with very superior numbers, the Prussian army in and before Dresden 2 No; and it was

the threat to destroy the place, and partial

execution of that threat, that induced Daun not to ruin his friends equally with his foes, and save the Prussian army. Did the terror of Russian sabres and halters induce the French to desist from firing from the ctadel of Turin, on its inhabitants in the interest of the allies, who had driven them from their outworks, and got possession of the town 2 Was hanging mentioned in any article of the convention concluded there: It is indeed superfluous to relate any of the atrocities of which the French have been guilty: for no man will believe that they are to be deterred by a gibbet from committing any cruelty, if thereby they can secute to : themselves any advantage. And the mur. dering of a few thousand Frenchmen in coo blood, would not much alleviate the fuffer. ings of the inhabitants. It is however itcontrovertible, that whatever portion of distress it is possible for an army to avert free friendly inhabitants, is a circumstance, in that degree at least, exculpatory of the com: mander, in not resorting to those measure which would have produced that distres It is not alone, perhaps, sufficient to justin the total abandonment of an object, in itsdi highly important to be gained, (to shew which I have before, stated the conduct the great Earl of Peterborough at Barcelons, but it is a very considerable item in the cat, logue of these obstacles, that collectives would wisely determine a commander to it. linquish that object. I wish it to have in due weight and no more. I have now answered all your observations, and wo again ask you candidly to declare, whether 4 was reasonable to expect an unconditicts surrender of the French in Portugal, as the corsequence of the battle of Vimiera; knowing that Junot was enabled to retreat to his pos. tion? If we had gained novictory, we mustham occupied the same ground, and possessednes: ly the same advantages. We gained glory, and little more ; and this glory so dazzled out countrymen, that they considered as inevitable, what before they had deemed scarce. possible. It was this victory at Vimien that made them exclaim : Occidit, occidit, Spes omnis et fortuna nostri nominis. The public knew the amount of the for sent against Lisbon; and I ask, whether, (without recapitulating all the particulars) the relative situation of the armies, agree. ably to the information the public then hed and since confirmed, was such as to render unpardonable the granting of terms to the French I think I have advanced reasons sufficient to prove the contrary. If they are futile, let their futility be proved; if tho’

are convincing, let it be candidly avowed. If their fallacy shall be established, I shall not be ashamed to acknowledge my error ; ; and I can assure you, I never hold the candid in contempt. Truth and impartiality are my objects; they were, I suppose, yours, when you nobly advocated the cause of Lutz, and firmly supported the effects of opular indignation at the peace of Amiens. }. not suffer yourself now to be biassed by popular clamour ; whatever part of it arises from erroneous opinions, resist and correct as fir as you can ; whatever part of it is just and reasonable, sanction and support; but, let your determination be the result of inquiry; aud do not let it be asked, Curnon Ponderibus modulisque sus raio utitur ; acres Ut quaeque est, ità supplicits delicra coercet 2 The case seems to be this : the total *xpulsion of the French from Portugal is he grand object for which an English army s sent there ; the difficulties in accomplishng this object are great, if the enemy deermines to risk his own ruin in opposing hem ; but, so important is the object, the must be encountered. If however it can be btained by granting terms to this enemy, which terms, on balancing the advantage !erived, and the injury sustained, both in preent offect and probable consequence, will se: o', the same benefit that would have easted from adopting the severe alternative f force, it is not culpable to grant their, ; nd in whatever degree the disadvo, tages esulting from such a Convention can be A roved to exceed the benefits derived, in at degree the commander who signs it iculpable; and, I am sorry to say, there are me articles in it so mortifying and degrading, at I cannot conceive it will be possible to roduce satisfactory reasons for having acceed to them. There is a portion of infany |

tached to this Convention of Lisbon which fear can never be wholly effaced. Grief 1d disgrace have invaded us, and I cannot at discover how they are to be altogether spelled. I have the honour to remain, ith great respect, &c.—C.—25th October, 508.

THE LATE HAR v Est.

SIR ;— As you are always watchful to rect the public attention to important tocs, the intrinsic interest of a sobject will - a sufficient claim to your notice though it 1ould not obtrude itself by the popular amour of the monent. The state of our tocks of Grain, the prospects of our growing op, and the probability of foreign supplies, ere matters of inquiry and examination in

your Register pending the Distillery Bill. It appeared to you, because much had been said both in the house and out of it, that the subject had been completely exhausted; but, in the different views which were exhibited, the peculiar and distinguishing characteristic of our present situation appears to have been overlooked. This, in fact, consists in that very extraordinary extension of the consumption of wheat in this country which of late years has so greatly outstripped the growth of the other countries of production. It is not that our own growth has not increased in a ratio proportioned to this extended consumption that we have cause of alarm, for the reverse is notoriously the case. In a work recently published, entitled “An Inquiry into the State. of National Subsistence as connected with the Progress of Wealth and Population, by W. T. Combe,” an historical view is exhibited of the progress of this increase, and it is there shown that the growth of wheat has doubled itself within the present reign, and, from evidence equally unquestionable, he has shown, that the increased production of other countries has borne no proportion to this ame: t. However adequate, therefore, our usia' and ordinary growth may be to the support of . our population, yet, in case of a failure, we can nowhere look for a stock adequate to supply our wants; for the redundant produce of other countries, whic', might supply a deficiency in a growth of four million quarters of wheat annually, would be utterly

inadequate to cover a proportionate failure

where t' os-on' growth exceeded eight millions.—We mu-o, ore admit the justness of the remark of the aut. above alluded to (p. 18, 8vo. edition), that when the consumption of a country greau.” “xceeds the general produce of the neighbouring countries of exportation, it is from her own produce alone that a stock can be formed at all adequate to her probable wants on a failure of her own growth. The surplus produce of the whole world,” it is added, “ would afford small relief to such a population as that of China.”—Without following this writer, who seems to speak from a practical acquaintance with the subject, through all the causes connected as they are with the existing corn laws, and the peculiar situation of the country which have prevented the formation of such stores, it must be acknowledged, that the removal of these difficulties becomes, under the present circumstances of the country, a matter of very urgent necessity. The practicability of encouraging such stores, without checking the operation of the dealers and farmers, is

demonstrated, and it certainly becomes the imperious duty of the legislature, from the peculiar fickleness of our climate, which, “ owing either to our insular situation, or northern latitude, or both, combined with the comparatively limited extent of territory, has been a source of scarcity and famine in every period of our history,” to turn their attention to this subject.–Nothing but that natural propensity in man, to forget past evils in the possession of present good, could prevent the effect which these repeated lessons ought to produce on our condoct. But we seem to be governod by a blind fatality or a desperate confidence. The harvest is now over, and the universality of the conpaint of mildew puts it beyond a doubt that the injury is extensive. In some places the produce is estimated at a third less than the average crop, in others a fourth, and in some a fifth. If we could suppose the defi.

ciency on the whole to be an eighth, this would annount to at least a million quarters of

wheat, more than double our average importation, and which has never been exceeded but once in the animals of our bio-ory. a-d that after two successive failures.—The price of wheat has already risen at least 25 per cent, or a full fourth higher than they were before the harvest, and had it not been for the oncertainty of the American embargo, there can be little doubt that this rise would have been more constolerable. “ it is not the magnitude of our foreign solics, so much as the manner of their coming into our markets, which affects our price." A hundred thousand quarters of wbeat are not more than an eightieth part of our annual consumption ; but such a supply arriving suddenly from America either in London or Liverpool, or both places, would depress the price very considerably, and affect those of the whole kingdom. This circumstance renders the holding of stocks extremely dangerous, without some sort of encouragement from government, and consequently lays us open to every casualty. This rise is already felt by many of the manufacturers both in Yorkshire and Lancashire, where a partial stagnation of trade exists, notwithstooding

thre new channels that have been opened to

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alarm to the whole nation. If the failure was at all general or considerable, the consequence might be an abandonment of national interests, and a sacrifice of national honour, to obtain a participation in stocks, the amount of which, at least, probably, would afford us a very inconsiderable relief." —I remain, Sir, &c.—Colt MELLA. R Ew F. Ri F. S. S:t,-Persuading myself that a commonication, which may contribute to remove error of any sort, will be fav ourably received by you, I am induced to offer th: following observations on a subject of goneral concern, inasmuch as it retates to to purity, and other good qualities, of the national beverage, Beer.—Wł, it I an desiro is to impress on the minds of the com: munity is, that the production of uniforn. // good beer is not an arbitrary matter, as i commonlv supposed, and which may b: accomplished any and every refs who choses to toke on himself the office c. a brewer. For, a man may be willing sacrifice a large allowance of the chcioto materials, without having the power, stic all, to make a palatable, early, and spottaneously fine, and consequently a woo some mait liquor, unless he is provid. with, and fully understands all the uses to some far more secure guides than to discriminations of his own sonses alone v. prove. A studious observation of to powerfully different effects of the differ degrees of heat in the water used in several extractions, and of the he, it in fementing the worts so extracted from o molt, is of the very first importance o necessity–The last is an operation of so influence in the case, that, in conjunct with the precantions required to be observe in the mashings, fermentation deterino o the cally or the later period of natoral to ness, as well as a distinction of filio our co, sing to the several stages of its progress and, witha}, fixes the principles of prevotion in beers. Hops afford the basis this last mentioned and desirable proper but all the benefits of the hops are destro by a few hors only of too long protoed., or otherwise erroneous, fermeutation

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The several degrees of heat, critics. suitable to these two leading parts of to process, rest on the brewer's experior and judgment; and, when discovered a determined on by him, are applied, n ° precisely, by the use of properly constro ed thermometers. But these heats cans be judged of, to any tolerably sufficient co gree of correctaess, by the perceptions “ the touch alone. Neither is the exact nuantity of saccharine mater, afforded by the inhalt, which is the foundation of all the strength in the beer, to be discriminated by the taste. It is, however, necessary that the precise anourt of such sweet should pe constantly ascertained; because, without a knowledge of this product, (which varies •oprisingly according to the different quaity of the buriey, and the method of tnoting it) the brewer cannot maintain that anifornity in the strength and flavour of his beer, which is the only true criterion of a well regulated practice.—This valuable information is afforded by a suitable hydrostatical inst triment ; which shews, by the specific gravity of small portions or sampies of the different worts, and by their several ganged quantities, the total amount of such saccharine or fermentable inatter 20ptained in each brewing of tualt, to a thousandth part, or less.-lt will be evident o every reflecting mind, that, without a snowledge of the uses of these two instrunems, so often as a practitioner succeeds in producing good beer, he is indebted to :hance alone—and that he retains no sure means to repeat his fortunate operation. Time, indeed, will produce much change ind, generally, some improvement in beers Brewed at such randon, ; a remedy which may be afforded, and is, also, greatly relied in in family brewings. But this cannot be *herwise than highly disadvantageous to he public brewers in the present state of beir trade, by causing a necessity for a bursensorne stock of beer, prepared from barey at an excessive price, and loaded with ormous duties on the beer, and on the halt.—The employment of the two instrubents is now become pretty general in the fade; yet the advantages derived from then ite but partial—always varying with the defree of experience and judgment possessed y the different practitioners, in establishing set of rules for conducting the operations. It , therefore, severely injurions that, owing to the generally prevailing opinion, that the Susiness of brewing is merely practical, old therefore performable by persons of to - roleanest education, those, who have been somewhat more successful than some buers, in discovering the beneficial points and uses of the instruments, have become the objects of misrepresentation and detraction ; and this, directly through the ignotance of the uninstructed part of the trade, or of other persons who are equally unin

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formed in the matter. Much calumny has been disseminated in a charge of their using other articles than “rhalt, hops, yeast, and water,” or it is chiefly pointed at a supposed use of substitutes for the two first. I shall endeavour to shew that the brewer who expends his money in any such substitutes, of in any extraneous matters whatsoever is most despicably ignorant of every advantageous principle of his business, and of his immediate interest in a pecuniary point of view ; for that malt and hops, are not only the most beneficial, in every respect, but, also, the cheapest articles that can be used in a brewery.—it is well known to the Distillers, as well as to the intelligent among the Brewers, that it would be no more ful ile to attempt to make saleable bread from sa zdust, than to make any sort of vinous liquor (such as beer) from any matters whatsoever, except from some matter which is saccharine. For, no other subjects will yield an extract’ which is capable of the vinous fermentation; without such fermentation no strength or spirituosity can be produced; and the quantity of ardent spirit, (provided the fermentation has been properly conducted) is ever in proportion to the quantity of sweet contained originally in, and therefore extractable from, the subject or matter employed ; and so very exact is this.proportion of the spirit to the sweet, that the distillers can ascertain, to mathematical certainty, the precise number of gallous of proof spirit which will be yielded by their fermented liquor, (called by them wash) previously to committing the latter to the still. The same rule extends also to, and is practicable in, the brewery. Of all the saccharine matters whether domestic or foreign, procurable in this kingdom, the three cheapest, comparing the produce with the cost, are malt, treacle, and sugar. The proportions which these bear to each other, are, as 8 bushes of malt, so are 196 lbs. of sugar, or 240 lbs. of treacle.—The introduction of the smallest quantity of either of the last two, subjects the common brewer, by the excise laws, to the penalty of £200. If then it were even desirable to substitute stich sweets. for malt, could, let me ask, any useful quantity of such bulky matters be introduced into any considerable brewery, without the knowledge of every individual employed on the premises, who, as informers, would partake of the penalty Would, therefore, any prudent man render himself liable to such mean tyranny, or to such exposure

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and stch penalty With regard to treacle, must not every person, however unacquainted with the practice of brewing, perceive, that a very small portion of this coarse and black article could not fail to dest, oy the sale of all beer required to be pale; and, as to sugar, the cost of 190 lbs. is 107's. while a quarter of the very best pale halt is to be made or purchased at 20 per cent, less; even under the present unusually high price of barley. Which, therefore, of all the saccharine matters, is the most desirable one to a brewer, in producing the most saleable beer, at the least cost to himself —The use of hops in brewing, exclusively of their desirable flavour, is to preserve the worts from becoming acid; as they would, without this preventive, at some seasons, even in the first stage of the fernsentation. For, the introduction or the on;ission of this ingredient constitutes the chief diocrence between the operations of making beer and vinegar from malt. More powerful bitters than hops, may perhaps, be procured, but the bitter is of no use without the preservative property. Gentian and quassia are wholesome and useful, as medicines ; but, if introduced in beer, they cannot fail to cause a rapid decrease in the brewer's trade; owing to their total want of the fine aromatic flavour, as well as of the pre-elvative qualities discovered, hitherto, in hops alone. . Hence there can be no inducculent to an understanding brewer to use any substitute whatsoever for hops; since it must be plain to every one, that a prosperous trade is no otherwise to be gained, or to be preserved, than by pleasing the palates of the consumers; and no other matters will afford so sa/ea"'e a fiavour in beer, as choice hops united with well made malt.—But, the most important of all the considerations connected with the case, relates to the wholesonveness, or otherwise, of the discrent malt liquors, brewed in the kingdom.—It is owing to the general ignorance among the majority of praetitioners that scarcely any beers which are brewed by them will become naturally five in less time than twelve months; when, they are, most commonly, hard, perhaps

crabbed, and are, accordingly, deemed by

]] the medical men unwholesome. On the other hand, that species of malt liquor is allowed, and found to be the most whole* some, which becomes spontaneously bright at an early period, and will so continue, without tendency to acidity during as many months as may be required for consuming it. These desirable properties are to be obtained, constantly, only by a i-uowledge of the

proper heats which are suited to the critic. parts of the process. While uniformity in strength, proportionate to the price chained for the beer, is gained by the right use of an hydrostatical instrument. It will, probably, be remarked, that the well known import: tions at the custom-houses of certain article, supposed to be used in the brewery, est: blish the proof that such matters are used 1 beers. nor am I at all desirous, to defend th: practices of the grossly ignorant. What astiron is, that no truly intelligent brewe would so waste his money to no other obje. than to deteriorate his beer, and thereby it. pede the sale of it.—In situations where put. lic breweries abound, it is little imagined how very scarce they are in other parts of the king dom; insomuch that it was stated to a commit. tee of the house of commons, about eighter months ago, by Mr. Jackson, one of th: commissioners of excise, that the number to common brewers announted only to 1,4% while the brewing pullicans were so namo rous as 23,700 !!—If the community coo

be prevailed on to believe, that a genero

successful practice in brewing is really ar. truly a matter of science, and not attain: ble without laborious study, and the consor: assistance of accurately made instruments, which last can be of no use whatsoever unless they are accompanied with scori portion of mathematical knowledge,

would be evident that the greater book

not all) of the 23,700, together with very many of the 1400, in the country, must 8: utterly incapable to apply the instruments, and to conduct such an intricate process, with any approach to certainty, and, th: : unable to account for the disappointment, which they must incur, wholly ignoro, also, of any correct means to judge of the comparative values of the very best mate. rials for brewing, and the very worst, they

It may be so. I am not attempting,

are open to the insinuations of the venders

of the drugs alluded to, who, it is wel known, hesitate at no falsehoods to persuade these uninformed people that the sec. cess of the reputable practitioners is owing to the use of the contemptible tr; sh for which they pressingly solicit orders. These, therefore, if any, are the brewers who, through the grossest ignorance, be: come the purchasers of ingredients, utterly inapplicable to the purpose; and which can have ro other effect than to increase their difficulties, as well as their expences—0. the other band, the most wholesome, at generally preferable malt liquors, are chiefly to be expected from the efforts c men of better education, engaged in coir

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