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Hardy, to whom the parish have given, I believe, some mark of their respect and gratitude.—Of all the numerous symptoms of national decline in England, none is, perhaps, so strong, so completely indisputable, as the rapid increase of our paupers. There are, out of nine millions of people, one million and a quarter of paupers ; that is to say, of persons, who cannot have any motive whatever for wishing to preserve the govern. ment and the laws. Nearly a seventh part of the whole population of England and Wales is of this description. As to the great cause of this increase of pauperism, it evidently is the corresponding increase of taxation, through the means of which so many are maintained in idleness upon the fruit of the labour of others. I have, I think, upon a former occasion, clearly shown, that taxes, if carried to a certain extent, must cause some of the people to be so poor as to be unable to maintain themselves; but, at present, my object is to offer a few observations as to what might now be done, with a view of checking this lamentthe evil, if only one or two of the principal Persons, in each parish, would heartily set about the work. Until of late years, there was, amongst the poor, a horror of becomig chargeable to the parish. To become chargeable was a reproach ; and never to tive been chargeable was a subject of proud toultation. This feeling, which was almost universal, was the parent of industry, of cire, of economy, of frugality, and of early habits of labour amongst children. But, this feeling is now extinguished; the barrier, shame, has been broken down, and in have Rished for parish aid all those, whether young or old, who are not of a turn of mind which must always be rarely met with. The parishes, instead of endeavouring to check the evil by a vigilant attention to the different earnings and means and manners of the poor, have, in general, adopted the easy course of giving wages in the shape of relief. For instance, the week's wages is, in some places, ten shillings, and, in order to put the labourer with a family upon a par with the labourer without a family, the former receives, in the shape of relief, a certain allowance for each child above two. So that, as a matter of course, every loborer, who has more than two children, becomes, with all his family, paupers; they sink quietly and contentedly into that *tate, from which their grandfathers, and tren their fathers, shrunk with horror. Nay, when a labourer, in such a state of things, marries, he counts the pauper thest among his ways and leans; and even

his hours of courtship are partly spent in anticipating the receipts from that never failing source. That men should possess spirit, that there should be any independence of mind, that there should be frankness, amongst persons so situated, is impossible. Accordingly, whoever has had experience in such matters, must have observed, with deep regret, that insiead of priding himself upon his little possessions, instead of decking out his children to the best advantage, instead of laying up in store the trifling surplus produce of the harvest month, the labourer now, in but too many instances, takes care to spend all as fast as he gets it, makes himself as poor as he can, and uses all the art that he is master of to cause it to be believed, that he is still more miserable than he really is. What an example for the children | And what must the rising generation be lt used to be the boast of the labourer, that he could mow or reap or hough so much in a day; that he could earn so much money by his labour; but, now, if he does earn great wages, his first *nd greatest care is to disguise the fact; and, it frequently happens, that he will change from master to master, and from one sort of work to another, for the express purpose of preventing the parish from being able to ascertain the amount of his earnings. When part of his children become able to assist in maintaining the family, he takes care that the annount of their earnings shall never be known ; and, as he still gains by counting them amongst the number to be maintained, he keeps them at home, in preference to sending them to annual service, where they would, under the command of others, con

tract those habits of industry, regularity, , ,

and obedience, which, in very few cases, in any rank of life, children contract at home. So that this system operates in producing a twofold mischiei, 1st, in encouraging the labourer to rear his children paupers, and 2ndly, in preventing them from ever shaking-off their pauper-lika habits. When children, thus reared, do become servants, they are generally the very worst of servants. Bred up in dissimulation, no word that they utter can be believed; they are totally unworthy of confidence ; and, as is universally the case with slaves, they are sure to be insolent when they can be so with impunity.—It is very right, that some power should stand ready to decide between the pauper and the parish ; but, even this institution, so benevolent in its intention, has its evils. To resist, by a formal process, the claims of a pauper has always the appearance, or, at least, is liable to the imputation, 9f

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of this system of general pauperism, and

that is, that it withholds from the cripple, from the orphan, from the helpless widow, from the aged, and from all those who are really objects of compassion, and who ought to be comfortably supported and tenderly guarded; from all these it withholds a

art, at least, of what they ought to receive. t confounds these with those who have brought themselves into misery by their laziness, or their vices. I know an instance, in a parish which has now a work-house, of two men, one about forty, who lost his two eyes in two drunken brawls, and who scarcely ever did a day's work in his life : the other, upwards of fourscore, who fought at the battle of Mindrn, and who worked, I think, 'till his eighty-fourth year. What could be more unjust than to couple these men together under the general name of paupers, and to treat them alike Yet, until they had a work-house, the Parish, though very desirous to do it, were unable to discrimate ; were unable to give any visible and solid proof, that they looked upon one man as being more entitled to their compassion than the other. I have introduced the statement respecting the workhouse at Enfield, for the purpose of showing what abuses work houses are , exposed to, when left in common hands ; but, I am satisfied, that, if the gentiemen of the parishes, whether in town or country, were to take the superintendance, or controul, upon themselves, such establishments would become of the greatest utility. To the farmers, who are the passers, the task cf refusal is always an ungracious one ; being parties, and parties refusing to pay, the magistrates hear them, and ought to hear them, with some suspicion, unless under particular circumstances. Besides, the farmers have not time to attend to any concerns but theiros, and, unless they are of to go on”. they can

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There is another terrible consequence

not be expected to be proper judges of
all the various matters, upon which they
have to decide. Gentlemen are seldom
payers of poor-rates to an amount that
can produce a temptation to do what is
cruel or harsh ; they are better qualified
for making representations to the magis-
trates ; they stand as umpires between the
farmels and the poor, with a little harm-
less bias towards the latter ; and, it would
happen but in few cases, that there would
be any appeal from their decision. An
instance of the effects of an interference
of this sort may be witnessed in the parish
of Droxford, in this county, where one
gentleman has, by his sole exertions, re-
duced the poor rates to one half of their
former amount, and is, I am told, able to
say, that now there is no such thing as
misery in his parish, where it was for-
merly visible in numerous families. For
my part, I know of no greater blessing to
a parish than such a man ; and, I wish he
had more imitators, amongst those who
run from the misery of their neighbour-
hoods to the gaieties of the metropolis.
The parish rates, all together, of Eng-
land and Wales amount to nearly, if not
quite, sir millioms annually. Lock at
| Enfield and Droxford; and ask yourself,
|
|
|

why, under the zealous efforts of only one
or two men in each parish, a general
effect of the same sort, and in the same
degree, might not take place : The poor.
rates, in general, amount to one half a
much as the rent of the land. Is this as
object beneath the consideration of th
proprietors of the land? Or, is it of les
importance to them, than the babble abou
what they call politics, which so many to
them help te keep up in London 2 Bus
the most weighty consideration of all, i.
that, by neglecting to perform this, the
natural duty, they suffer those who a
real objects cf compassion and of tende
ness to be confounded with the lazy, stu
dy paupe, and they leave the rising g
neration to come up to man's estat
with minds divested of even the idea
independence. If a gentleman talks
: me of love of country, of public-spir
* I would ask kits, how he can so effectua
and usefully evince it, as in this wa
¥is efforts in almost all other ways m
be useless; but, in this way, they :
root only certain to be attended with ut
ty, but immediate utility. The nut

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increase in number, prove, that, while the present system) of taxation lasts, it is in vais, to seek for any go. Heral remedy for ta's gre it and disgraceful evil. The re

medy, or -the mitigation, at least, must coon f :... individual exertion, or the

whole evil must not only remain, but must receive daily ad lition. It appears to me, that country gentleuten shoo!d lay it dow: as a role never to have a paope in their employ; and that, according to the q', \ntity of their work, they should &lect men of the largest families and pay to on for their in onr a sufficiency for their mainteria:.ce. This would be giving an example to the formers, and would, at the same time, h > fixing a mark of disgrace upon pauperism. I cannot endure 14e idea of the labourer's receiving regiarly, while he and his family are all in good health, a part of his subsistence in the character of a pauper. Nothing does good but that which is earned. There are particular cases when acts of charity (properly so called) are useful; but, I like not the system of presents and rewards. The labourer, like other men, will do little for himself if he be coaxed to do it; and, like other men, he will not, if he can avoid it, have any one to watch over him, or pry into his concerns. I am for giving hom his earnings, and, that he may set a high value upon them, say not a word which shall lead him to believe, that I do cot regard them as his own. If I had a labourer, who was to become a notorious runkard, I would dismiss him, because it would be my duty strongly to shew my disapprobation of so beastly a vice; but, 2:ter a good deal of observation, I am toorooghly convinced, that, as a “ watched “ pot never boils,” so, a watched penny Dever breeds. The lending of cows to cottagers and all that system of superintendance, including child-bed linen and the like, though arising, in most instances, from amiable motives, has, I am persuaded, never done any good; and, I make no doubt, that, if the fact could be ascertained, fifty pounds expended in good cheer of the old fashion, would not only excite more gratitude but would work more solid advantage to the receivers, than ten thousand orinds expended in '' comforts” and spellLg books. The “ comforting" system accessarily implies interfor ence on one side, and dependance on the other; and, if these exist, it matters not whether yon rall the “ conforted" simily paupers; or, they will feel themselves dependent, and will hive no other than the mind and character wiich belong to the pauper s...to, the most

prominent feature of which is dissimulation, or, what is vulgarly called “ making a “ poor mouth.” I do not think that ladies visiting poor families is at all useful. When any part of a family, particularly the mother, is is, then, indeed, such visits are proper; bot, I have no opinion of the visitings, which, in some places, are in vogue. They savour too much of ostentation ; and, whether they be really so, or not, ninety nine times out of a hundred they are so considered by the visited party. In short, I am for giving he labourer a sufficiency, in the shape of wages, to maintain his fimily, and leaving him to live and manage his affairs entire y in his own way. The great: bstacle to the restoration of the labourers to their former independence of mind, is, that their wages, generaliy speaking, are partly paid in the shape of parish relief. A man, with a wife and three children, cannot possibly keep body and soul together upon ten, or even twelve, shillings a week, and, how, then, is he to labour upon the food which that wages will supply Well, say the employers, we will, then, give him a

rottle more wages in the shape of relief; be

cause, if we nake an addition to what he receives in the shape of wages, we must raise the wages of single-men also. And, why not Would you have no soul of them all earn a penny more than what is barely sufficient to sustain life Would you have them to be, in effect, slaves from the cradle to the grave Of what avail is it for a man to be industrious, if his industry will neither enable him to lay something up in store, nor enjoy a day of leisure or recreation ? What motive has he to keep from the parish list, if he be certain, that a cut in the hand in whetting his scythe, will make him a pauper ? To those whom I may have wearied with these desultory remarks, I would beg leave to repeat, that the paupers of England and Wales are nearly a million and a quarter in number, and that, by the exertions of individuals of weight in their several parishes, this shameful evil may in so.ne measure, at least, be removed. Botley, 14th July, 1803.

OFFICIAL PAPERS.
SPAN 1sh RF volutio N.—GA 1.1c1A.
(Continued from page 64.)

GALics ANs, –You have bewailed the fate of your amiable Ferdinand. The horror of the perfidy by which he was seduced, still burns in your bosons. You fear danger to our holy religion, you look upon our exterior worship as annihilated, upon our altars profaned, and the temples of the eternal and scle Omnipo; ent converted into places of de

solation by order of the tyrant, who arrogates to himself the title of arbiter of destinies, because he has succeeded in oppressing the noble French nation, without recollecting, that he himself is mortal, and that he only holds the power 'elegated to him for our chastisement. You turned your eyes towards the municipal authorities, and you even insulted them ; because they did not animate the flame of your indignation against the enemy. The time is come. Your kingdom has assembled in Cortes, and re-assumed the sovereign authority, which under such circumstances devolves upon it by right, and of which its first exercise is in complying with your wishes so loudly declared ; you have already a leader, and the most vigorous dispositions are taking. Fly thereforc to arms! and let us march to defend the cause of God, the honour of our country, our lives and our fortunes | Will you be insensible to the voice of the nation, and will you only be found valiant in the streets of your cities 2 Now, that twenty thousand brave soldiers have taken up your cause for theirs, will you refuse to unite with their generous battalions? Will you hesitate to embody yourselves with these masters of the military art 2 Do you imagine, forsooth, that your courage without discipline can be useful ? Such ideas avaunt—receive in your arms these heroes who are going to marshal your strength, and only from the common name of Spaniards, even without being Galicians, feel a deep interest in your cause. The kingdom sends them to you. You should obey their sovereign and legitimate authority. Let discord fly from us ; we are brothers, and are going to sacrifice ourselves for the same sacred Catase. Galicians ! enrol yourselves from 16 to 40 years of age. It is better to die in defence of your religion and firesides, and in your own county, that, to be led bound to slaughter in order to satisfy an inordinate ambition. The French coascription comprises you. If you do not serve your kingdom, you will go and die in the north. We lose nothing. For even should we be unsuccessful, we shall have freed ourse lwes by a glorious death from the galling chains of a foreign yoke. But there is no reason to fear this peril. Death has alarms only for poltroons—and , d. for whose cause we are going to fig'at, will w ich over us, b case, in the . . J, every wortal has a determined measure, and we or q t to trust in his mercy, that when his wrath (which we so much deserve) is appeased, he will protect us. The standa. of your holy patron Saint James is now to turied ; let us follow it.—— Galicions ! The Asturians and Alouese have 80,000 men enlisted, and already

20,000 under arms. Let us go and relieve our brethren, these intrepid men. We shall thus save our country from becoming whe theatre of war. This kingdom, which has assembled through your instance, expect it from you. This kingdom will reward those who distinguish themselves, with every thing in its power, and at the conclusion of the war it will immediately give you your discharge, and enable you to enjoy the fruits of victory under the shade of the laurels you will have won, and consign to your child: en at your ease, the example of your glorious deeds-Domil NGo VALA Do DE PARGA, sec. Corunna, June 5th, 1808. BiscAY.

BRAVE B1*cAYANs AND CoM RADes--Your wish is already fulfilled ; the mine, which lay deep in your bosom, and our's, is sprung. The time has arrived when we are all called upon to make a noble sacrifice for our holy religion, our good laws and customs ; and what object is more worthy of such a sacrifice than their preservation. Since last night, the whole of this town is in arms, to avenge the provocation and insults we have received from the French. Nothing was capable to check the ardour of our people, especially since they knew that you entertained the same sentiments with them. Yes, their ardour, their fervent courage, must be regulated by order, intelligence, and prudence, that it may produce the result at which we all aspire. Above all things, it is absolutely necessary that we should act in concert, and meet for that purpose, by proper deputation. A council has already been formed in this place furnished with all the necessary powers, and composed of us, the undersigned. If in initation of the meetings, which took place in this country in 95, the deputies of the different districts meet without the least delay, the means of our common defence will soon be organized. We will mutually instruct and assist each other, according to the means and local circumstances of each district. Let for this purpose exact returns immediately be made of all, who can take up arms, from the age of seventeen to fortyfive, and sonewhat more, where bodily strength and vigour permit : let also instantly a return be made of all arms, fit for service, which are found in the different districts. Let us immediately be trained to arms by military men, retired from service. who are scattered over our provinces, and let us at least devote two hours a day to military exercise. . The general principles, which move us to think and act as we do, you will with ph asure find elucidated in another paper, which for that purpose shall be circulated among you. Santandero, May

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has published a proclamation, in which he distorted every fact, and pretended, that you gave the first provocation, while it was he who provoked you. The government was weak enough to sanction and order that proclamation to be circulated, and saw, with perfect composure, numbers of you put to death, for a pretended violation of laws which did not exist. The French were told in that proclamation, that French blood profusely shed, was crying out for vengeayce And the Spanish blood does not it cry out for vengeance 2—that Spanish blood, shed by an army which hesitated not to attack a disarmed and defenceless people, living under their laws and their king, and against whom cruelties were committed which shake the human frame with horror. We, all Spain, exclaim—the Spanish blood shed in Madrid cries aloud for revenge — Comfort yourselves, we are your brethren: we will fight like you, until we perish in defending our king and country. Assist us with your good wishes, and your continual

prayers offered up to the Most High, whom we adore, and who cannot forsake us because he never forsakes a just cause. Should any favourable opportunity offer, exert yourselves as valiant Spaniards, to shake off the ignominious yoke imposed on you with the slaughter of so many of your innocent fellow citizens, and with a perfidy horrid beyond example.—Don Juan Bautista Esteller, first secretary — Don Juan Pard, second secretary.--Seville, the 20th May 1808. BAN DO. The supreme junta of government, desirous beyond measure that the public should. partake of the joy which they feel, informs it, 1. That the city of Valentia, and the kingdom fired with the generous impulse of their loyalty, have proclaimed and sworn allegiance to their king Don Ferdinard VII.without any trouble or disorder whatever ensuing. —2. That in consequence thereof they named a government, to superintend the kingdom as long as the urgency of their circumstances should continue.—3. That they published a declaration to that purpose including other matters, which shall be communicated in due time.—4. That they recognise a sovereignty, and will neither receive nor obey any orders but those of Ferdinand VII. and in the interim the government he names, or that which represents him.–5. That the paper stan ped in the name of the lieutenant general of the kingdom shall not be used.— 6 That his excellency the count de Cervellon is named general of the troops.-7. That the aforesaid government should enforce a general enlistment of inhabitants, from the age of 16 to 40-8. That they have stopped a number of chests of money, which were destined for Madrid.—And for the information and for an example which we hope will be followed by all Spain, the present paper is ordered to be published— Royal palace of the Alcazar, May 31, 1808. —Don Juan Bautiste Pardo, Sec. 2.-Don Manuel de Aguilar, Sec. 3. COR to OVA—TO. Its IN HA e ITANTs. Soldiers —The kingdoms of Andalusia see themselves attacked by the assassins of the north ; your country is on the point of being oppressed by the yoke of a tyrant ; you yourselves will be dragged from your firesides and from your homes. The wanton Murat is fabricating 40,000 manacles to conduct you, like the most contemptible animals, to the north. What atrocity' Who is such a coward, such an infidel, that his breast does not burn with courage, at the cries of his country lamenting over its destruction ?—Soldiers! Do you, too, groan over it; but let your groans be the groans of rage and fury at the wretch who plunges her

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