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no proof that it was not strong when Junot , defend, and not to assail. This was a most entered it at first; and with you reses the I perplexing situation for our ariny, and Junot onus probandi. I do not purpose to enter would take especial care to increase the dif. into a detailet account of the circumtances ficulty to his uimost. Now, bad be before. under which Junot entered, and took pos mentioned stateinents of the inimense session of Lisbon ; nor do I intend w quote strength of Junot's position, and his abunthe Prince ilegeni's Manifesto, and a variety dant supply of provisions been disproved inof other documents to prove how he could stead of meeting with a confirmation, in have been resisted; and I am not aware of the unqualified assertion, “that Junot could any reason why it may not be admitted, easily have consumed time in a protracted though contrary to the fact, that there was defence," it would avail nothing to your noi, at the time Junot entered Portugal, one argument. And unless you convince us that parapet in the whole kingdom), from behind every individual of the public, who naturally .woich resistance could have been made with l expected an unconditional surrender was, in greater advantage than in the open field, if forming such opinion, convinced that Junot resistance had buen determined on. There had no formidable entrenchments to fly to, cin, indeed, be no analogy between the si. and no supply of provisions, it will not as ist tuation of the French and English armies at you, if you can even prove that Sir Arthur the times they respectively entered ihe coun. ! could have marched into Lisbon witb no try. But since when did these places be more obstruction than one of your readers come so very strong? There is no reason to into Mr. Bagshaw's shop, and would have be astonished ; Junot has been in Portugal | been as cordially and politely welcomed. bong enough, and has not wanted means, You proceed -"Well, then," say you,“ if tithout supernatural aid or the interposition

• it be true i hat Sir Arthur Wellesley, with of a necromancer, to ereci fortifications, from " only 9000 men, beat the whole of the which to dislodge him by the next arrival “French force, in spite of all their advan

would require all the skill of Luglish of. " tages, have we vot a right to expect, nay, - ficers, and all the intrepidity of British sol “ had we not a right to claim and to de

diers. But, Sir, every account since Ju. " mand, at the hands of the commander in not's arrival most fully concurred in re. " Portugal, when he had 30,000 men, the presenting him as particularly sedulous in “ capture or the total destruction of the repairing the old, and erecting new forti. 1 " French army ia Portugal, and if any nafications, and that be had rendered his po "tion had any right to expect any thing, sition almost imprequable; and I never saw ' " this nation had a right to expect a result any stalenient, which tercied in the slightest « such as here described ?"---- It is true degree to invalidile their claim to general policy in a general to whom the desence of a belief; and, certaiuly, there weru not a few | strong place is entrusted, and wào has at his individuals who, previous to Sir Arthur's disposal a force more than necessary for its landing, entertained very alarmiy appre- defence, to march out and attack the army hensions as to the result of the attack, if advancing to the siege, if the circumstances, such had been found unavoidable. Yon under which he is to make the attack, are then ask, “ Was Junoot's army to be fed by such as to justify him in expecting a favours ravens ?" I cannot inimediately find the pas- able result ; and in the event of his sustainsice, but something to this effect. If you ing a repulse, reireat to his position is se. Wireas successtul in proving that Junot was cure. On the contrary, it would evince a not supplied withi, nor had any means of great want of skill in the general, who procuring provisions for his army, as you are would march out when his force was scarcely in exposing the boilow and groundless rele sufficient to garrison the place, where suc. sons entertained by cur generals as to the cess was not certain. Junot, in his plan of impracticability of obtaining a supply for | attack on the 21&t, and in his resistance at the English army, I should determine not to | Roleia, appears to have been perfectly satrouble you with these observations, although

tistied that he should succeed. It fortunate, the question, as it respects the public, would Jy was not the case, but his retreat was not still remain the sine. The newspapers, 1 prevented. What was :he effect? The Enghowever, furnished us with various accounts lishi army was enabled to blockade him, and of Junot's having collected a large quantity | prevent his incursions into the country; be of provisions; and there was no great reason I could not again meet them in the field ; but to believe, that a French army would starve it did not follow that an English army would while there were between 2 and 300,000 | bc able to expel him froin bis Soris. A Portuguese inhabitants in Lisbon, people, crowd of instances might be collected to whom we went to assist, not to distress, to prove, thal men who had been beater in

the field, had successfully defender a forti- / general opinion, that except in the most disfied place; brit those of more recent occuir tressing circumstances, noihing can justify rence, will perhaps be more convincing. our commanders for having acceded to the We have not yet ceased to deplore the fale

present Convention; it is, I fear, a Conand admire the courage of the Spaniards, vention which has aflixed to the British ardefeated at Rio Seco, and our tongues still my and nation a stigma so indelible, that no vibrate with the praises of the undisciplined event, however favourable, can wholly re. defenders of Valencia, Gerona, and Sara- inove it, or prevent is suggesting the most gossa ; places certainly not more formidable | agonizing reflections. We are, however, ihan the forts and entrenchments of Por | well aware, that great public calamities and tugal. Now, I do not mean to insinuate individual misfortunes, have not unirequentthat our troops could not reduce Junot ; but ly given rise to, or been accompanied by their amounting to 30.000 would not pre- circumstances which, in the progress of vent less bloodshed. Do you believe, that time, have very materially contributed to if Lisle, Maestricht, or Brissac, were pro diminish the pernicious ettects apprebende verly garrisoned and commanded, that the at their occurrence; and it is some conso hesieging armiy would experience less loss, lation, that the people have not suffered if they were ten times the nurnber of the their reputation to be sullied without a mur. blockaded garrison ? We also know, that mur; that the same page of history which in the battle of the 17th, when our army | records this infamous and insulting Conveo. forced the passes of Rcleia, ooly 6000 men tion, will also relate the virtuous indignation could be brought to bear ; and it is proba - felt by a people jealous of their bonone; ble, that it Loison and Laborde had efficied | will rouse the lethargic, and animate the their junction before the attack was made, corpid of succeeding ages, by a glowing de we should have experienced a very alarma scription of the patriotism which prevailed ing loss., I think no one will deny, that the in every rank; will detuil the people's real public had the means of satisfactorily ascer. hement and unceasing cries for vengeance taining that Junot, effected his retreat afier | on those who dared to degrade their charac the battle of the 21st; that the places to ter, and debase their dignity. And although which he retired were strong by nature and it is highly probable, that the immediate art; that he had a plentiful supply of pro- consequences of this Convention will be visions, and that his force afier liis defeat highly disastrous, it is not impossible tha was still formidable; and the probability of it may produce some beneficial effects. I reducing him not much greater than when will shew the world the feelings and cha the forces first sailed, recollecting, that at racter of Englishmen; it will powerful that time it was generally reported and be instruct our military commanders, that the lieved, that Sir Arthur Wellesley would honour of a nation is not to be surrendered land at Peniche, and immediately invest with impunity. Since the commencement the place. Impressed with the belief of of the French revolution, no treachery These facts, I really cannot see how the however base, no infamy however atrocious public could anticipate the result, such as (and unfortunately many equally, pay, moro they did anticipate, and as you have re- iniquitous than the Convention of Lisbon dated, till the public will declare that condi. |

may be enumerated), ever produced in the tions might not be granted which would be countries where they happened complaints preferable to the certainty of great loss in, so general and unqualified as in the present the attack of these places, and the chance instance. The consideration of these cit. of failure ; till it can be proves that it was cumstances will afford more than a transien: the public conviction, that our army would | gleam amidst the immense gloom; wil have been able to contince the blockade prove more serviceable than a solitary spar, without much difficuliy, that their services when threatening waves surround. I feci were not wanted in any other quarter; till, confident that I have been considerably tog in short, it can be proved, that the public prolix and tedious, that many of my le was certain that there were no secret mo- | marks are totally unnecessary, and others tives, and those very strong ones, to in not sufficiently elucidated; but as I have luence the determination of our comman not time to condense and arrange them, I ders to agree to a conditional surrender. shall leave them to your candid and uopreSo far, I think, you will allow. uncondi judiced consideration. I cannot, however, tonal surrender could not reasonably be ex- conclude without expressing my regret, tha pected by the public, and that our com- | any circumstances sbould exist which could manders were, so far, prematurely disgraced; prevent our having, what we certainly very but I modi perfecily copcur with the now much wanted, and which you have energe

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tically expressed, " an instance of triumph, I miglit have been, I should not have called + a proof of victory, which no one could your attention to them. But will you beas gainsay." ---I have the honour to re- lieve it, Mr. Cobbelt? in consequence of main, Sir, &c.- c.

Mr. Lingham, who in his book, according

to these critics' own account, “kepl quite I EDINBURGH REVIEWERS.

clear of the least appearance of taction," SIR ;--The Edinburgh Reviewers, in Waving characterised ihe oiher gentleman her bolky pamphlet of April, 1809, under by a few expressions not by any means unhe grise of reviewing two publications, usual in political controversy, and none of Arilen by gentlemen, whose names, I be. which, from their analysis of his publicahere, are wholly loknown to the public, tion, I think it is pretty clear, were misap

Mr. Rylance and a Mr. Lingham, are plied ; such as “ obscure pamphleteer," slessed to enlighten the world with their | ir unauthorized tool of a party," and she houghts, upon the subject of the late emi like; I say, will you, Sir, believe it, that ration to the Brazils. Upon this topic, I these worthy disciples of the Whig school, tel no interest in controverting their opi: these pains-taking tinderlings of the present ions, as they are of course the echo of ihe Opposition, these Scotch preachers of polireeches in parliament, ot chat faction upon rical liberty, are actually for lerring loose ihe bose fortunes their own depend; it being dogs of lau' upon poor Mr. Lingham, and ou no jecret to any one th:10 the positive amercing him with fines, penalties, im. zerbearing and dogmarical paradoxes, which prisonnient, and the pillory, for having failed Lave so peculiarly distinguished the Edin. / to acknowledge the eminent consequence of urgh Review, proceed from a small

this Mr. Ry12110e and his perfect indepena not of young friends, who hunt after the dence, (which, be it observed, these reviewvol dinners and other good things of those ers themselves impeach) for having dared to complished statesmen, Lords Holland and I publis! the truth of him, and to speak of Senry Petty. The subject, iipon which I him as he deserves. They introduce their present address you, Mr. Cobbelt, is the whining complaint, and garbled quotitions nguage, which, in the article above-nen of Mr. Lingham's " abusive language' with oned, these gentlemen have made iise of this sentence : “ Some passages, we are pon the subject of Libel; language betraying | " pretty sure, would subject him to punish

once the base slavish spirit of which they " inent in a court of justice : ” and having - se composed, and the deiermined hostility finished their extracts, they conclude :

hich animates them against all the assertors " We have licele doubt that the above pas f the Liberty of the Press. It seeins, that “ sages, are themselves libellous." Is not ihis iese authors, whose pamphlets form the pre monstrous ? Why, the action laicly brought nice of the review, Mr. Rylance and Mr. | by the Duke of Bedford's Knighi, (I forget ingham, unfortunately agreed in nothing his name) was nothing to this. Irritated at in each dedicating his work to the Liver feelings in being shewn to be a dunce, and ool Solomon, Mr. Roscoe. Upon every disappointed expectations in not getting from oint, relating to the subject of the Portu his task-master his usual hire, to a certain uese emigration, they differed in their degree palliated the resentment of that entiments. Mr. Lingham, to use the wretched book-maker. But what have these Fords of the review, “kept quite clear reviewers to urge in extenuation of this gra.

of the least appearance of faction; while tuitous recommendation of legal proceed

Mr. Rylance, without any material quali. | ings? Mr. Lingham did not charge them - fication, except perhaps his praise of with a systematic and scandalous perversion

Mr. Roscoe in the dedication, adopted of their duty, with a base and profligate bian the precise line of argument, taken by either for or against every author whom they the persons in opposition to the present noticed ; Mr. Lingham did not say of them,

ministry." This was difference enough that their malignity against most authors -o regulate the judgment of these candid, and was to be equalled only by their interested mpartial critics. Mr. Rylance became, of adulation of a few ; that iheir wanton and ourse, the favourite, and Mr. Lingham, as scurrilous attacks on respectable writers man swayed by no party motions, but bold I in general, were balanced only in infainy by and independent enough to write from his | their gross and unblushing panegyrics upon owo understanding, was, of course, to be run I the members of their own fraternity ; that, down. If, however, on the present occa- | throughout the whole of their career, their sion, the Edinburgh Reviewers had confined | pens have been vilely prostituted to party themselves to literary strictures only, how purposes, in which task their inconsistency fyer partial and corrupt those strictures has been as notorious as their corruption,

the grovelling sycophants of power and I keep up the noble spirit by which it is aniplace, -the admirers of Piit, when living, | mated.---To make known to Spain and the and of his opponents, when dead. These, whole world the base means resorted to be or similar charges, Mr. Lingham never in- | the Emperor of the French to seize the pere sinuated against the Edinburgh Reviewers. son of our king, Ferdinand VII, and to One does not see, therefore why they should subjugate this great and generous nation, is feel so sore, why they should so strongly a duty well worthy of one who, like myself sympathize with Mr. Rylance, cry out the , is in a condition to discharge it; inasmuch senseless yell of libel, and call for punish as circumstances placed me in a situation 1 ment in a court of justice! Really, Mr. | be an eye-witness of the events which pre Cobbett, the coincidence between the time ceded the catastrophe of Bayonne, and it of this publication (April, 1809) and the which I bore a part It was not in na commencement of the knight's law-suit, and power to do this before, iu consequence the identity of their sentiments upon the sub personal resiraint, and from not having colt ject of libel, are so marvellous, that I veri lected the documents necessary to accred jy suspect some of these young friends, who my statement. Some are still wanting perhaps may belong to the profession of the which it was necessary to burn, in cong Jaw, were his counsellors upon the occasion, | quence of dangerous circunstances, advised the action, as the phrase is, and which every thing was to be feared; othea perlaps assisted in getting up he cause. The have disappeared ihrough the various ind knight, I dare say, has since heartily re. dents connected with that unhappy period pented of having acted upon the opinion, but those which I now present are suiticien from wbatever quarter it proceeded ; and to prove the atrocious violence committe the Edinburgh Reviewers, since the unfor- against our beloved king, Ferdinand VI 19 tunate failure of liis experiment, are pro- and the whole nation. Though the condola bably now ashamed of the detestable perse of Spain towards France since the peace cuting spirit so wholly inimical to the liber- | Basle, a very interesting portion of its polo ty of she press, upon the expression of tical history in these latter times, is into which I have animadverted. In making | mately connected with the important ered these animadversions I have no other object which forin the subject of this Exposities in view than 10 vindicate that palladium of it is not necessary to dwell even upon our rights. without the secure enjoyment of principal periods. It will be sufficient which you, Sir, have so often observed, that state what the whole nation, and all Earong our boasted freedon is nothing worth At know, that the political systein of Spal the saine time I feel an apology to becue, has constantly been during th:s time to pre for the length to which may observations | serve friendship and the best understand have extended, a length to be justified only with France, and to maintain, at all by by the importance of the subject itself, zards, the ruinous alliance concluded which will, I bope, plead my excuse, and 1796.-To attain this end, there is no sacris bestow a temporary consequence even upon fice which Spain has not made; and as to these insignificant individuals, Messi's. Ry preservation of the Prince of the Peace it lance and Lingham-Yours, &c.-P. D.-- the high degree of favour be enjoyed with Sup424, 1903.

Charles IV. depended in a great measur

upon the continuauce of this system, it EXPOSITION OF THE PRACTICES AND MA maintained with the greatest constancy an

CHINATIONS WHICH LED TO THE USUR indefatigable attention. Fleets, armes PATION OF THE CROWN OF SPAIN, AND treasure, everything was sacrificed THE MEANS ADOPTCD BY THE EMPEROR France; humiliations, submissions, eser OF THE FRENCH TO CARRY IT INTO E X thing was suffered, every thing was done ECUTION, BY DON PEDRO CAVALLOS, to satisfy, as far as possible, the cosa:i20 FIRST SECRETARY OM STITE AND DIS demands of the French government; bad PATCHES TO RIS' CATHOLIC MAJESTY | The idea never once occurred of preserving FERDINAND VIT.

the nation against the machinations of an At a period when the nation bás niade ally, who was overrunning Europe. --The and conrinues to nke the most heroic Treaty of Tilsit, in which the destiny of the efforts to shake oil de yoke of slavery at. | world seenied to be decided in his favour tempted to be imposed upon it, it is the du- was hardly concluded, when he turned his ty of all good citizens 10 coutribute, by l eyes towards the West, and resolved on the every means in their power, to ensigbien it ruin of Portugal and Spain; or what comes with respect to the real causes that have to the same purpose, to make himselt mas brought it icto its present situation, and to ter of this vast peninsula, with a view

making its inhabitants as happy as those of , agent employed to forward the plan which Itals, Holland, Switzerland, and the league ! Napoleon had formed. --Fortunately the of the Rhine. At this very time, the Ein- ! Spanish nation was deeply impressed with peror was revolving in his mind some designs its situation, entertained a just opinion of fatal to Spain (for he began to disarm her), the good disposition and religious principles by demanding a respectable body of our of their prince of the Asturias, and suis.' Toops to exert their valour in recite re. | pected instantaneously that the whole was a jions, and for foreign interests. This he columny fabricated by the Favourite, as ab. ficcied without difficully, and there wassurd as it was audacious, in order to remove laced at his disposal a gallant and picked the only obstacle which then opposed his srce of 10,000 men of all descriptions.--views. - It is already known, that on the he enterprize of making himself master, imprisonment of the prince of Asturias, his

Spain was not so easy as Napoleon ima- | royal father wrote to the Emperor, 110 4 ned. It was, above all, necessary to find doubt at the suggestion of the Favourile, At some prerext for carrying into execution complaining of the conduct of the ambase during and gigantic plan of subjugating sador Beauharnois, in his clandestine comfriendly and allied nation, that lead made 1 nounications with the prince of Asturias, many sacrifices for France, and which and expressing his surprise that the emperor is very Emperor had praised for its fidelity | bad not come to a previous understanding d nobleness of character. Neverthele:s, with, bis majesty on a subject of such preDg accustomed toact with that disregard to eminent importance to sovereigns.-As the icacy in the choice of his means, which imprisonment of the price of Asturias, characteristic of the man who imaginas / and, above all, the most scandalous decree the conquest of the whole world, the | fulminated against his royal person, produruction of the human species, and the 1 ced an effect completely contrary to the exdc of war are conducive to true glory, pectations of the Favourite, he began to be resolved to excite and foment discord in afraid, thought proper to iecede, and to Toyal family of Spain, through his am- mediate a reconciliation between the royal ador at this court.-The latter, though parents and their son. With this view, as is haps not initiated in the grand secret of stated in the Abstract of the Escurial Cause, master, si'cceeded in seducing the prince | circulated by the Council in consequence of Asturias, our present king and master, 1 his majest; 's orders of the 8th April, he

suggested to him the idea of inter- | forged certain letters, and made the prince trying with a princess related to the em- | of Asturias sign them while a prisoner, Dr. The affliction which his highness which being delivered into the hands of the jured under from a conjunction of circum- royal parents, were supposed to have softenees, as lamentable as notorious, and his ed weir hearts; and by these singular means jety to avaid another connection into | didilis innocent prince obtain a noniinal. ch it was attempted to force him, with liberty. - This was the state of affairs when ly selected for him by his greatest ene. | a French courier arrived at the royal palace

and on that account alone the object of of St. Laurence, with a treaty concluded Arersion, induced him to acquiesce in l and signed at Fontainbleau on the 271b of c.furgestions of the anbassador, but with Oct. by Don Eugenio Isquierdo, as plenipo. :

stipulation ihat it was to meet the appro- lieniary of his Catholic majesty, and Mar- . on of bis august parents, and under the i slal Duroc, in the name of the emperor of fession that it would strengthen the į the French. Its contents, as well as those dstrip and alliance then subsisting be- of the separate Convention, constituie Nos. ; en the two crowns. His bighness, ac- 1 1 and 2 of the documents annexed to this ed by motives so cogent in a political Exposition.-It is worthy of observation,

of view, and yielding to the solicita. , that the department of the ministry, of s of the anibassador, wrote accordingly which I was at the lead, was totally unac. his Imperial majesty.-A few days atier i quainted with the measures taken by Don E. beloved prince wrote this letter, occurr | Isquierdo, at Puris, as well as with his apthe scandalous imprisonment of his au- pointment, his instructions, bis correspon I person in the royal monastery of St. dence, and every part of his proceedings. lence, and the still more scandalons de. The result of this treaty was to render ile ewbich was issued in the name of the Emperor master of Portugal with very little 5, and addressed to the council of Cas- | expence; to furnish him with a plausible

There are very strong reasons to be. pretext for introducing bis armies into our le, that the unknown hand that frustra- peninsula, with ile intent of soljugiting it usteigned conspiracy was some French a proper opportunity, and io put liian in

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