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lies so valuable, in order that Spain may not be without a king, the nation will make use of their elective right in favour of the Archduke Charles, as nephew of Charles III, in case that the Prince of Sicily, or the Infant Don Pedro, and the other heirs should not be able to concur. 3. That should the French army commit any robberies, devasution, and murders, either in Madrid or any other town, invaded by the French troops, they shall be considered as guilty of high treason, and no quarter shall be given to any of them, 4, That all the transactions which have hitherto taken place,shall be considered isogal,void,and extorted by violence, which is known to be practised in both places. 5. That what may hereafter be done in Bonne, shall also be considered as null and void ; and all who shall take an active Fort in the like transactions, shall be deemed lotors to thei, country. 6. That all desertto of the French army who shall present themselves, shall. be admitted in Arragon, to realed with that generosity which forms * Prominent feature of the Spanish national oracter; they shall be disarmed and conoried to this capital, where they may enis in our troops. 7. All other provinces of kingdoms of Spain, not yet invaded by he enemy, are invited to meet by deputies at ermal, or any other suitable place, to noonate a lieutenant-general, whose orders Hall be obeyed by the particular chiefs of to different kingdoms. 8. The foregoing *inifesto shall be printel and published in the whole kingdom of Arragon ; and it shall *he circulated in the capitals and principal Poes of all the provinces and kingdoms of #Ain. Given in the head-quarters at SaraKosa, the 31st May, ISO8.—PALA fox, Goenor &nd Captain General of the Kingdom y Arragon. . . . As TURIA. Loyal Asturians! beloved countrymen our first wishes are already fulfilled. The riccipality, discharging those duties which re, most sacred to men, has already forgally declared war against France. You may perhaps dread, this vigorous resolution. But what other measure could or ought we 9 adopt? Shall there be found one single ban among us, who prefers the vile and gnominious death of slaves to the glory of lying on the field of honour, with arms in is hand, defending our unfortunate moorch, our homes, our children, and our wives?. If the very moment, when those *nds of banditti were receiving the kindest
*ffices and favours from the inhabitants of
* capital, they murdered in cold blood
*P*ds of two thousand people, for no
Jr.’ JULY 9, 1808.-Official Papers.
[54 other reason, than their having defended their insulted brethren, what could we expect from them, had we submitted to their dominion 2 Their perfidious conduct to-. wards our king and his whole family, whom they deceived and decoyed into France under the promise of an eternal armistice, in order to chain them all, has no precedent in history. Their conduct towards the whole nation, is more iniquitous than we had the right to expect from a horde of Hottentots. —They have profaned our temples ; they have insulted our religion; they have assailed our wives; in fine, they have broken all their promises, and there exists no right which they have not violated. To arms, Asturians, to arms 1 let us not forget, that Asturias at the time of another invasion, which wo— doubtedly was less unjust, restored the monarchy. Let us aspire to the same glory on the present occasion. Let us recollect that no foreign nation could ever lord it over us, whatever exertion it may have made for that purpose. Let us offer up our prayers to the God of Hosts. Let us implore the intercession of our Lady of Battles, whose image is worshipped in the most antient temple of Covadonga ; and perfectly sure that she cannot forsake us in so just a cause, let us rush upon our detestable enemy, and annihilate and drive out of our peninsula, a people so base and treacherous. This demand is addressed to you in the name of your representatives, by the procurator general of the principality.—Alvaro Florez Esraud A-1 - Oviedo.
The council general of the principality must not lose a moment to publish the following letter which has just been received from their king, Ferdiuand the VII. and the authenticity of which is ascertained by one of the members of the council, who possesses the most unquestionable knowledge thereof. On the first cover is the superscription— “To the royal assemblage of Oviedo.", The second is superscribed—“To the chief ‘‘ of arms of Asturias.”—“Noble Asturians.—I am surrounded on all sides, and a victim of perfidy. You saved Spain under worse circumstances than the present. Being now prisoner, I demand not from you the crown, but I require, that, concerting a
well digested plan with the neighbouring pro- -
vinces, you do assert your liberty, and not submit to a foreign yoke, nor subject yourselves to the treacherous enemy, who despoils - of his rights, your unfortunate— Pāince Ferdinand.—Bayonnne, May 8th, 1808.”—To expressions so energetic and impressive the ceuncil ought not to add any observation ; but with the most poig
nant grief they mingle their tears with those of all their beloved and faithful country men, to whom the letter is coulumunicated.— JUAN De ARGUEKER To RAL, Act. Secretary. GALI CIA.
Brave Spaniards,--The abdication of his kingdom by our Sovereign Ferdinand VII. officially cornmunicated to us, is the most striking proof of the violence he suffers. He thereby manifests to us his want of liberty and power, and the grief he feels on being compelled, by despotism and tyranny, to separate himself from his subjects; he implicitly demands our assistance. It is intended to substitute in his place a inaughty and perfidious conqueror, who mediates the effusion of your blood, to satiate his sanguinary appetite and his boundless ambition, as he has hitherto profusely shed the blood of the noble, brave and loyal French nation, He means to drag, by main force, the most illustrious Spanish youths, whither the good faith of our monarch has already sent a great part of them, without any other object than to aggrandize a man, for whom the world does not appear to be sufficiently extensive, and who gluts on human blood. The reward of that generous act, has been a perfidious conduct, unprecedented in the annals of civilized nations. The stratagons, the frauds, the treacheries, are notorious, which Napoleon has employed to introduce, in the quality of an intimate aliy and a faithful friend, his troops to our very capital, and makes himself master of the fortresses on our frontiers; to harass the feelings of our monarch ; to cause disturbances among the people; to robus of our king, princes, and infanto, and to controul with an iron hand the deliberation of our government, which, without liberty, gives olders which it abhors, ruled as they are by a foreign regent and intruder. This scandalous colduct, and that which he has committed with regard to £truria, and our neighbours the Portuguese, point out to us the degree of fidelity and faith which we may expect from the high sounding promises with which he means to cloak his inalignant designs, treating us as a people at once insensible and dastardly — Shall a cultivated, brave, and generous nation, bend its neck under the yoke of perfidy ? Shall it allow itself to be insulted by injuries—the most perfidious, innmoral, and disgraceful, committed in the face of the whole world ; and submit to the most humiliating slavery prepared for it No, noble Galicians, such are not the dictates of , your noble minds. Glowing with the noost vir
tuous ardour and noblest enthusiasm, you.
have already expressed your sentiments,
worthy of the praise and imilation of a Spaniards. You rather wish to die, than to see your independence trampled indel foot, your religion destroyed, your king in, cap. tivity, and your country thrétiened; with a yoke equally burthensome and unjust Quicken the generous sentiments of you noble minds. Fly to arms, not like tha monster, to indulge an inordinate anibition not like him, to violate the rights of huma nity and the law of nations; not to rende us odious to mankind; uot to offend, generous and friendly nation, ruled by imonster already become insufferable upo earth —Fly to arms, to assist your country men ; to rescue your king from captivity to restore to cur government liberty, ene gy, and vigour; to preserve your lives an those of your children; to maintain th uncontrouled right of enjoying and disposir of your property ; to assert the independent of your native sui; ; and, above all, to d, fend your sacred religion. Employ the arm which she tenders; arm your minds wi the far of God; implore the aid of th immaculate conceptivu, and of the glorio Apostle St. Jacob, our patron; and confide of success in so giorious a cause, rush for to grasp the victory which is prepared f you by their intercession, and the justiceyour cause.—And ye, corporations and p vate individuals, who, from your situati and circumstances, caunot take up arr assist your brethren with your property & fortunes. You are concerned more th any other subject in this demandscsacrifi spontaneously part of, ybur, propertys -th' you may not be deprived of the Mohake violence. D9—not delay that sacrifice fi m ment, if you wish that by the prompt ex" cution of a well combined plan, the fury an enemy be checked, whos is accustom at all times to act with othe, ragidity. lightning. Divest yourselves of a'd priv, views, and hesitate not;- for otherwise y yourselves, your wives, children, and tae lies, will become the victims of the mo inveterate revenge.--Don MAMUAL AGH Sec. * , , , , , ; , 2PRECAUTIONS, , ; ; , is Which it will le proper to observe throug out the different Provinces of Spain, the necessity to which they have be driven by the French, of resisting st wnjust and violent possession which th Armies are endeavouring to take of , Kingdom. - We cannot doubt a moment of t exertions which the united provinces Spain would make to obstruct and def. the malicious designs of the French, a
that they will sacrifice even their lives on this occasion, the most important, and even unparalleled in the history of the nation, both in the thing itself, and in the horrible means of ingratitude and perfidy by which o undertaken, pursued, and ire still endeavouring to effect our slavery — !. Let the first object be to avoid all general actions, and to convince ourselves of the very great hazards, without any advantage, of even the hope of it, to which they would typose us. The reasons of this resolution are many, and such as any one will discover who has the use of his understanding.— 1. A war of partisans is the system which sits us ; the embarrassing and wasting the temy's armies o want of provisions, des. toying bridges, throwing up entrenchments in proper situations, and othersimilar means. The situation of Spain, its many mountips, and the passes which they present, its rivers and torrents, and even the colloca tion of its provinces, invite us to carry on this species of warfare successfully.—3. It is indispensible that each province should have its general, of known talents, and of licherperience as our situation permits, that is heroic loyalty should inspire the utmost ofdence, and that every general should tive under his command officers of merit, Porticularly of artillery and engineers.-* As a combined union of plans is the oil of every well concerted enterprize, and that which alone can promise and facilitate ouccessful issue, it appears indispensible that there should be three generalissimos, who should actin concert with each other * -one who should command in the four ongoons of Andalusia, in Murcia, and lower Estrémadura—another in Galicia, * top” Estramadura, Old and New Castile, of Leohu-another in Valencia, Arragon, *nd Catalonià ; a person of the greatest dit being appointed to Navarre, the **ayan Provinces, Montanus, Asturias, * Rojo, and the North of Old Castile, for the Purposes wbieh will be mentioned hereaf.er. -5. Bath of these generals and general**imos will form an army of veterans, "ops and peasantry united, and put him*t in a situation to undertake enterprises, *d to succour: the most exposed points, *ping up always frequent coinamunication "h the other generalissinos, in order that "may act by common accord, and assist * another.—6, Madrid and La Mancha *uire an especial general, to concert and **ite the enterprizes which their particu*local situation demands—his only object *t be to embarrass the enemy's armies, to * awa, or cutoff their provisions, to attack
them in flank and rear, and not to leave them a moment of repose. The courage of these inhabitants, is well known, and they will eagerly embrace such enterprizes if they are led as they should be. In the succession war the enemy entered twice into the interior of the kingdom, and even as far as its capital, and this was the cause of defeat, their entire ruin, and their utter failure of success.-7. The generalissimos of the North and East wiłł block up the entrances to the provinces under their command, and come to the assistance of any one that may be attacked by the enemy, to prevent as much as possible all pillage, and preserve its inhabitants from the desolation of war; the many mountains and defiles which are on the confines of these provinces being favourable to such projects —8. The destination of the general of Navarre, Biscay and the rest of this department is the most important of all, in which he will be assisted by the generals of the North and East : with the troops and other succours which he stands in need of. His whole business must be to shut the entrance of Spain against fresh French troops; and to harrass and destroy those that return from Spain to France by this point. The very rugged local situation of these provinces will be of singular advantage in such a design, and these enterprises, if weil concerted and carried into execution, will no doubt be. successful : and the same may be understood of the different points by which the French troops which are in Portugal may come into Spain, or by which French troops may enter through Rolissillon into Catalona, for there is not much to be apprehended for Arragon. And, even from Portugal, it is not thought that they will escape, on account of the proclamations which have been circulated in that kingdom, and the hatred which they before bore to the French being encreased without measure by the innumerable evils which they have been made to suffer, and the cruel oppression in which they are held by them.—9. At the same time it would be very proper that the generalissimo should publish and circulate frequent proclamations amongst the people, and rouse their courage and loyalty, slewing them that they have every thing to fear from the horrible perfidy with which the French have dealt with all Spain, and even with their king Ferdinand V is and that if they rule over us all is lost, kings, monarchy, property, liberty, indepei.dence, and religion; and that therefore it is necessary to sacrifice our lives and property in defence of the king, and of the country, and thoggo our lot (which we
hope will never come to pass) should destine us to become slaves, let us become so fighting and dying like gallant men, not giving up ourselves basely to the yoke like sheep, , as the late infamous government would have done, and firing upon Spain and her slavery eternal ignominy and disgrace. France has never domineered over us, nor set her foot in our territory. We have many times mastered her, not by deceit, but by force of arms; we have made her kings prisoners, and we have made the nation tremble—we are the same Spaniards; and France, and Europe, and the world shall see, that we are not less gallant, nor less brave than the most glorious of our ancestors. —io. All persons of education in the provinces should be stimulated to frame, print, and publish frequent short discourses, in order to preserve the public opinion, and the ardour of the nation, confuting at the same time the infamous diaries of Madrid, which the baseness of the late government has permitted, and still permits to be pubFished in Madrid itself, and has caused to be circulated abroad, detecting their falsehoods and continual contradictions; let them cover with shame the miserable authors of these diaries, and sometimes extend their remarks to those Charlatans, the French Gazeteers, and even to their Moniteur: and let them display and publish to Spain, to all Europe, their horrible falsehoods and venal praises, for they afford abundant matter for such a work. Let all such perverted minds tremble at Spain, and let France know that Spaniards have thoroughly penetrated, their designs, and therefore it is that they justly detest and abominate them, and that they will sooner lay down their lives than submit to their iniquitous and barbarous yoke.— ł 1. Care shall be taken to explain to the nation, and to convince them, that when freed, as we trust to be, from this civil war, to which the French have forced us, and when placed in a state of tranquility, our lord and king Ferdinand VII. being restored to the throne, under him and by him the * Cortes will be assembled, alouses reformed, and such laws shall be enacted as the circumstances of the time and experience may dictate for the public good, and happiness. Things which we Spaniards know how to do, which we have done as well as other
destroy our holy religion, as they have hi. therto done, and will always continue to do so long as the spirit of perfidy and ambition which oppresses and tyrannises over then shall endure.—“Juan Bautist A PARD0, Secretary.” By Order of the Supreme Junta. Le oro. - When we behold the great and noble re. sistance which is at this moment opposed by the provinces of Galicia and Asturias, to the projects of the basest and most execrable cs tyrants, it is impossible to believe but that they must be seconded by all, who, like themselves, have a sovereign to avenge, sacred rights, and a conntry to defend. Still, should any be restrained by fear; should any fail to concur in the sentiment which calls them to artis against an unprincipled oppressor, it will sufficiently determine them if we recal to their memory what Spain owes to the virtues, to the courage, to the he roism of Pelage, to the valour and to the patriotism of Rodrigue Diare de BivarThese two great men, one from the province of Asturias, the other from that of Castile, were called forth at different epochas, but both equally difficult, each to preserve our country from a foreign yoke. To their characters, and to the sentiments of enthusiasm which they excited in ever! breast, does Spain owe the glory and the happiness which she has se long enjoyedShould the government of Asturias discover that any part of the inhabitants take up arms coldly or indifferently in the defence of the country, let it address to them those sen's timents which the immortal Pelage addressed to the citizens, to his brave companions ino arms, when a formidable and crueloenemy wished to subjugate them to his power:“. It is no longer time to deliberate,” said this virtuous and courageous Spaniard, under, circumstances nearly resembling the present; “ the nature of our cause, the situation o our affairs, and those of the enemy, requiro promptitude and activity; and that we should not waste our time in useless deliberation.} We arm to re-establish our altars, our rest. gion, our glories, the liberty of our children. of our friends, of bus country? to place in safety the houcur and chastity of our wives; to rid ourselves of the yoke of a conquero, base as he is cruel, who has covered himse: with our spoils, and unders whese dread dominion outlives coeld Hotboast the secu. rity of a momento-eif ever opportúñity & curred to tempt almost glorious * this is the momenie-this momentowhich we are assembled, tinited; bound together by a chain of interest, which equally cos; corns all inhabitants of the mountains; it ye of the vallies! Hear our determination
for him, and the hand which has punished
us because we have forgotten him, will fortify our arms in a war undertaken for the honour of his glory', 'Let us put our confidence in the invincible strength of the Almighty : I will lead you to battle ; I will ever be the first, and will require of you nothing but that of which I will set you an uample.”—This harangue, so suitable to the cocasion, produced then the same effect as it will produce to-day. At the voice of Pelige, all the Asturians took up arms, each of them performed prodigies of valour; Can: thriataad, Galicial severally sent deputies, | Waying to be admitted into the confederaHon of Asturias 3, they were received, their #Fans united, and the Mbors were conquerA t-Three, hundred' and thirty-nine years
This virtuousocitizen and gailant warrior, turning with desire to secure the liberty of his gouatry, did nothesitate to remonstrate with animatiatjain, avicommeil where the
* "appress to the Frewog."
been saved. What has not hitherto been done, may yet be achieved ; but for that purpose there must be unanimity among
principals, and a reunion, wisely combined,
of all our forces and of all our means—Without this concurrence to retain our country's
welfare, without the most resolute courage
to drive from her bosom a cruel and perfidious enemy, like an enslaved people, we shall lose our fleet, our arsenals; our army will be disbanded or sent into Germany, our militia disarmed, our clergy despoiled and destroyed, our churches pillaged, our altars profaned, the lands of our grandees confiscated, our commerce ruined, our potsessions beyond sea no longer belonging to our capital; the kingdom drained by enormous contributions; Spain, in short, happy and free under her kings, will be reduced to the most frightful slavery-To avoid calamities so dreadful, one only resource remains to us. It is to rally round the standard which the provinces of Galicia and of Asturias have raised, in defence of religion, of justice and of honour. Children of our country we will be worthy of ourselves; let us perpetuate the glory with which our ancestors are covered great, like libem, let us think no sacrifices too much, when we have our liberties to preserve, the massacre of our parents, or our friends, to revenge, our wives and children to defend, If, to the shame of the Spanish nation, there have been found men, such enemies to themselves and to their country, as to haslen to the feet of the tyrant, and prostitute before him their existence and their rights, let us nevertheless hope, that the chiefs of the Spanish league
| will not like Pelage, have to guard against * ind goble Castilian of theocity of Burgos.
designs such as those of the archbishop of Seville, who was base enough to betry his faith, his God, his king, and his country.
Let us endeavour to believe, that the great
and laudable example which the bishop of Oviedo and of Compostella have afforded, shall be followed, not only by all those in the kingdom, but likewise by every member of our respectable clergy, secular and regular, who, alike interested as the ministers of re
ligion, and as good citizens, to punish crime,
to accelerate the triumph of virtue, and to
preserve Spain from the disgrace and oppression of a foreign yoke —Signed by the mem[bers of the council at Leon, May 17th,
* * * *
... French McN.—You possess no longer eithe laws or liberty, nor any good whatever; and your children, you have been *::: to enslave ‘...po not Yench,
o opean na
reigns over you and