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aut off the enemy's retreat through Navarre, | between the system of an ambitious and where they will be joined by other troops treacherous government, and that of a and the arined peasantry of that country; Qation which cements its felicity by the fairand the 6000 meu that I expect to-morrow est principles of justice, and considers not from Valentia, joined by 4000 men of the as real enemies those who took no share in army formed on Catalay-ad, will, I trust, be the delicious combat of their government. able to overtake the eneiny's rear, in order | France will long deplore the calamities which to chastise and prevent them from commite the war with Spain has prepared for her ; ting on this march their usual robberies and and cannot recollect, without the deepest - vexations.-This fortunate event has been this sense of shame, the means employed to carry day celebrated with the ringing of bells, it on.-Husbandmen, artizans, orphans, and to-morrow the Te Deum will be sung aged and religious persons, ye who have to offer up thanks to the Most High.-It is been reduced to indigence and misery in of great importance to accelerate the meeting consequence of your fields being fired, your of the deputies of all the provinces of Spain, houses destroyed, and your property, which, and I think it would be expedient to ap however small, constituted your whole for. point for that purpose a day in the next tune and all your comfort, robbed by the month of September. I have given the French, be easy ; you have the good forsame advice to the rest of the general and tune of living in Spain, and yours is the supreme councils in the whole kingdom ; ! glory to have defended the capital of Arragon,
nd should you coincide with me in opinion | whereby our enemy was prevented from de.. - In this subject, I hope you will acquaint me solating the rest of this beautiful province:
with it.-JOSEPH DB PALAFOX Y MELZI. you bore up with resignation under your sufHead-quarters, Saragossa, Aug. 13, 1808. ferings, and disregarded your private interest Manifesto, dated Head-quarters, Saragossa, in order to promote the general good. I Aug. 15.
cannot look with indifference on deeds of After so many days of pain and affliction, | heroism like yours, nor omit any opportunia he period has at length arrived, which I ty of proouring you relief. I have very parcould expect, from the firmness and valour ticularly charged the intendant general of with which you have defended this illustrious the kingdom, D. Lorenzo Calbo, as soon as capital.-Having witnessed the shameful the most pressing occupation of the present light of tbe French slaves, who have aban- period shall permit it, to relieve your wauts 'loped the artillery, ammunition, and pro by every means in his power ; and I depend
jsions, which their detestable rapacity had on the generous feelings of all Spaniards, leaped up, let us now perform our principal and on the liberal sentiments of our beloved luty, and offer up thanks to the Omnipotent king, that all possible exertion will be made who has inflicted condign punishment on to indemnify you for your sufferings and „hose wretched soldiers who profane the losses.- PALAFOX. emples, outrage the sacred images of the Manifesto of the Junta of Seville, August Divinity; and are such strangers to morality,
3, 1808. hat they are not worthy to have any inter The defence of our country, and of our ourse with the rest of mankind. Let us king, that of our laws, our religion, and of
eave their emperor to the remorse and affic. all the rights of man, trodden down and - ions which are the lot of the wicked, and violated, in a manner which is without exa
leseech the Most High, that he may youch ample, by the emperor of the French, afe to bless again our arms, that the two Napoleon I. and by his troops in Spain, mies which are in pursuit of the fugitive compelled the whole nation to take up arms, obbers, may complete their destruction. and to chuse itself a form of government; The fields of Saragossa, its gates, and even and in the difficulties and dangers into which 'ts streets, are stained by the blood of the French had plunged it, all, or nearly all,
2000 Frenchmen, who have paid with the provinces, as it were by the inspiration Cheir lives for the temerity of their chief. of heaven, and in a manner little short of
This is the fruit which the French have miraculous, created supreme juntas, dali. eaped froin tbeir entrance in Arragon. All vered themselves up to their guidance, and Europe, nay, the universe, will hear with placed in their hands the rights and the horror the names of their generals Le Febvre ultimate fate of Spain – The effects havo and Verdier, who, unmindful of the good hitherto most happily ci rresponded with the 'Treatment which the French prisoners, and designs of those who formed them. The all the natives of France experienced in Arra provinces have armed themselves; some gon, bare committed the utmost atrocities. have formed large arniies of veteran troops, They tery justly appreciated the difference and have uuiled to them the enlisted pea
sants; all, or nearly all, have fought and an alteration into them; the different preare fighting against the French in behalf of texts for this alteration; and, lasilý, the their king, Ferdinand VII, with a valour final settlement which was made by the and a constancy, of which neither Greece, cortes of 1789, and which ought in future por Rome, nor any other nation of the to be the rule. But are we in i situation to world, had any idea. The French are realiy talk of these matters? Long live our king amazed and terrified, and the hopes of con- and indisputable sovereign Ferdinand VII. quering ihem are as sure as human certainty and long live his a gust brothers, heirs of can reach.-The only thing which can in the crown, after his arrested decease. Why pair or frustrate them, is discord, and the then anticipate those enquiries which can opwant of union among the provinces them. Jy be necessary in default of these? This selves. Hence the supreme junta paid its anticipation may produce, by the diversity first attention to remove that danger, with nf opinions which it creates, a cruel diswhich view it prinied aut published the union, which, of itself alone, will utrerly official paper, entitled Precautions, which is ruin the only aim and onject which Spain at communicated in every possible manner to present bas in view, and ibat is, its owu eall the provinces of Spain. · The bringing i tire and independent preservation for its sothis plan to perfection, and carrying it intovereign lord and king, Ferdinand Vil and complete execution, is now more than ever bis undisputed successors; and, with its necessary. Our enemies are anxions to 1 king, the preservation of its own rights and foment our divisions. Human passions, laws, and the unity of the holy Rosan Capersonal interests ill-understood, the igno. tholic apostolical religion, which it has glorance, the weakness, the blindness of min, riously professed and defenated for so many may, perhaps, without their knowing it, ages. It is therefore, bb absurd and danassist the evil designs of our enemies, and gerous to dispute about the sixccession in casos thus destroy a beginning so glorious, and evidently remote; all the provinces of Spain facilitate and consunimate the coure ruin of onglit to confine thenisel:es in this respect to Spain. This it is that we are endeavouring this general expression-.“ Hirediny succesto guard against, urged only by the most sion according to she fundamental 1.dll's of the sacred motives, by our honour, by our loy-monarchy."-Not so is it wiib the second alty as affectionate subjects, by our duty as question moved by the various juntas of ih: Spaniards, by our faith as Christians; and kingdom, whih certainly keeps the people here we protest before God and man, whose in a state of disquietude and rgitavion, j: aid we invoke with all fervency, that we the continual object of public conversation, will write nothing but what is diciated to us and may produce division. fial to the gene. by the love of our country, the preservation rous design, and the virtuons obligation into of our king, and of our rights, not mingling which we have entered of defending ourselves with it any thing that appears to pariake of against our enemies, and of preserving our passion, of interest, or of any other persone country, our king, our monarchy, our laws, al mutive ; but being always ready to hear and our religion. This second questivo isthe opinions of the other provinces, and to is there a necessity for creating a supreme amend our own errors, wherever it shall be government, which may unite the sove. shewn that we have commiited any.---Be it reigo authority of all The provinces, Ull the chief care to avoid every thing which is the restitution of king Ferdinand to his pot absolutely necessary, and which may throne ? This supreme junta declares serve to sow the seeds of disunion in die openly, that from the beginning to the provinces, and to excite divisions among present time it has been persuaded that such a them; and of this nature we esteen all con- suprenie government is altogether necessary, versations about the royal house, and of the and that without it the country is in danger, order of succession in different families and its energies will find means of complet which derive a right from it. There is no ing its ruin; and the reasons of this deier. person so ignorant of the history of Sorin, i mination and declaration are so evident, and and of the manner in which the throne has present themselves with such clearness to been occupied, as not to know the changes the eyes of all, that they cannot fail of con. which have taken place in the succession. | vincing all who have the least notion of pubIt is also known what are the legislative pro- lic attairs, or a correct insight into the naceedings upon this point; what the manner | ure of man, the passions which inove him, in which endeavours were used to introduce and the order of human affairs in all ages.
(To be continued.)
Printed by Cox and Baylis, Great Queen Street; published by R. Bagshaw, Brydges Street, Corent. Gunden, whose furmer Numbers may be had : sold also by J. Budu, Crown and Mirre, Pall-Mall.
Vol. XIV. No. 16.] LONDON, SATURDAY, OCTOBER 15, 1803. [Price 100.
In the London Gazitle Extraordinary, in which were published, by the governient, the several documents re'r'irl cotie lace Conventions in Portugal, thic Armistice, which was the basis of all that follower, and waich, as far as it was deputed from, in the subicqucnt negociations, was icndered less injurious and disa graceful; this Armistice, which was, on our part, ncgeciated by Sir Arimur Welleslev, and which bre his s'enature; this Ainistice was published, was, by the government, communicated to the people of England, in the French language onlv, while all the other documents were, in the very same Gazzle Extraordinary, published in the English language only. 577)
(578 SUMMARY OF POLITICS. | Wellesley would not, indeed, have enjoyed CONTENTION IN PORTUGAL. — The the praises of this gulled nution for the space fact, a statement of which I have placed at 1 of a week; a strong and unjust public per the head of this present Number of niy suasion, ili his favour, would not have been work, should be constantly borne in mind excited; but that is all, that is all the misby every man in this disgraced and abused chief that could possibly have arisen froin country. It huis been the subject of much the delay.-- Bit, was there a delay ? I sonversation and inquiry; it was a thing, of l doubt it. Did not the bearer of the dish which the ministers must have been desirous patch bear also the account of the armis. D give, or cause to be given, a satisfactory tice, in substance is not in form? It is my xplanation ; it is notorious, that a whole opinion that he did. Ships do not move off ponth has now elapsed without the appear at a moments warging, like post-chaises. nce of even any atteinpt at such expla. The armistice must have been concluded ation ; and, therefore, the public are jus. before the bearer of the bragging dispatch fed in concluding, that their intention, Jeft Portugal; and, though it would have rom the first, wis to do all in their power been of liwe use, perhaps, to send forward Oscreen Wellesley, let what would become the document in due form, yet the suistance f his associates in the never-to-be-forgotten of it might have been added to the dicna'chi, tansaction. Whether they will persevere and it is not credible that it was not added.
this their evident intention we shall My belief, therefore, is, that the subitance bon see ; probably I shall be able to per- of the aimistice w9s made known to Lord pive it even before this article be finished; | Castlerergh through the berer of the disar, the hero of Oude being arrived, his patch ; and sisat he, not being bound to wspaper will not be long in making communicite that substance to the public, 1030 to us what we have to expect with ouileres us to go on, for as long a rime as xpect to him.- In the meanwhile, let cible, applaucing the conduct of Welles. Taitend to some points which bave escaped ley. ------ I do not wish to sirain any thing.
The dispatch, giving an account of I have no other notive; I can have no olier e victories in Portugal, were clated on the motive, than that of a desire to see imparUd of August ; the bearer of that dispatch 1 tial justice done ; but, this appears to me old pot have come away bcfore that day; to be the fact, and, if it be so, the publicouglit Ithat very day the armistice was negociated to bear it in mind; because it is a circun. ad concluded, and yet ihe bearer of the disa st:nce strongly corroborating the opinion, ich brought no cccount of the armistiti'. now generally prevalent, that the ministry, las not this someihing very singular? Sav, or a part of them at least, hare intended at the bejrer was ready to come off in the ard, probably, do intcud, to screen Wellesorning, and that the arinistice was not ler at i evenis.---- From mouives, which pcluded until night. But, if there were will, by-and-bre, become apparent enough,
sessel ready to send off with another | the friends of Wellesley are now question. essenger at night, why was not thebearer iny the practicability of redeciug Jonot ept until night, that the consequence of the within any reasonable space of time, and a ciory as well as the victory itselt might correspondent, whose leirer will be found in ave been announced to us at she 51e another part of this double Number of the me? Wbat injury to the service could ! Regisier, sels bouself seriously to work to ossibly have arisen froni the delay of a controvert ilie opinion which I gave, to
w hours in the depariure of this messer- ! wil, thot, alier reading Wellesley's dispatch, er! Nay, what possible inconvenience we had a right to expect, by the piece Vid have therefrom arisen ? Sir Arthur arrival, an account of the unconditioual
surrender of the French. Did any one before less than pine thousand men. After imagine, that, by the " next arrival," all, however, we return to the point : I meant, or could mean, the very next be his force what it mighi, the whole of it vesel that should come into port from was beaten by about one third of the force the shores of Portugal? I meant, by the that we had at ibe lime of making the Cone Dext bearer of dispziches from our armiy ; vention ; the whole of it was beaten but the next bearer of any intelligence of in- | the day before buy one third of that force, portance ; and, I appeal to the language of amongst whom uicre the very miep who had the press, at the time Wellesley's dispatch beaten lim ; ibis is the fact, or....Welles. was received, for a proof that such was the ley toladinis nation. This credulous and abu. expectarion' generally entertained.---- Bui, sed nation, a shaniitil lie. Well, says was it a reasonable expectation? That is this new defender of Wellesley, but of the question ; and ir is, observe, il question what avail would have been a superiority of which lies entirely between Vallesiey and force? We should not have made Junof the puislic, the other commanders having surrender any thing the socner on account had no liand in the bragging dispatch...' of great superiority of numbers.-- No? My correspondent now tells me of turenty Why then, the complete power of cutting or more than twenty thousand men, whom off surcours and of preventing the chance Jiruot l'ad under his command. But, Wel of sallies wouid, in the hands of our generais, Jesley told us, thist, with half his force, be. I have been useless ? Besides, what are this fore he was joined by Burrard, le beat gentleman's ideas of a siege? It is, for the " th. unle of the Froni la force, cominanded most part, a very vulgar atfair ; an affair "bithe Ducl dtrundes in purion." Isliould ) much more resenibling ditching and draining lilie to hire seen him when he penned this than any thing else ; and, as two labudiers last quoted sentence. " By the Duc d'A-I will do twice as much at dirching in a das " brantes in person!” How he braced up, than one labourer will do, so thirty thousand I dare sily, and repeated the words to him I men will, in the same space, do twice as selt, with an air of pomposity so insepara- | much at making frenches, approaches, and ble from his sect. "In person!" Why, if I batteries, as fitieen thousand men... We there liad been au army of a hundredthousand have, morcover, the authority of that great nien, commanded by emperors, the language man, Sir Hew, one of whose moires Inc and manner could not have been more poni: coming to terms with Junot was, that there pous. Simeone has observed, that the was a doult, whether Sir Jobn Moore's giving of this title 10 Junot proceeded solely division could be landed at the time. Now, from ihe vanity of Wellesley; as if nothing acceding to the notion of my correspondeni, short of a Duke were worthy of the honour more nien were not only not necessary, but of measuring swords with a Wellesley; I absolutely useless for the purpose of any and, indeed, it seems difficult to attribute operation that could, at the time alluded to, to any other motive, this cutting and fi igrant be in contemplation. But, for the purinsult to a prince and a people, phom we pose of storming, would not superiority went out to rescue from insult and oppres. numbers have been an advantage ? Or, sion. To return from this digression: it has not this mode of attack yet found its matters litile what were the numbers of Ju. way into the practice of our arnies? Why not's force al the date of the negociation; du we raise all these men ; why do we pay for, whether many or few, " the whole" of ten thousand officers; why have we a sta! his force had been beaten by“ one hulf" superior in numbers, and very far superior of the force of Wellesiey, and we kuow, in expence, to Buonaparte, if we are perer that the force of the latter became double into bear of any enterprize of this sort The Inumber, or nearly double, previous to the greater part of the forts in Portugal, if signing of the Convention. It is a tict pretty my information be correct, were things generally known, that wlen transporis are to be taken by storm, with the loss of demanded, doulle luonnon Lit is expected. Be: 1 perhaps a thousand men for each attack Gistes, the number is now:swelled out with of this kind; and, it will require very all sorts of persons, persons, who, observe, ample and very credible evideuce to conshut up in forts, would have been a dead vince me, that, with such an army, with weight upon him; and yet my correspon- | thirty thousand men, so able-bodied and so dent chooses to believe, that Junot could accustonied to labour, with such a train of have brought twenty thousand men into the artillery, and with the whole of the strength, tield, though it was positively stated, that labour, and resources of the country at our he retreated with luis is fole force betore one disposal, not to mention a considerable arIvail of Weilerley's army ; tirat is 10 say, nay of Portuguese actually embodied; it
will reqnire much in leed to convince me, gentle, that he had only to play the bully, that, with such incans, our generals might the robber, and the murderer, and had 10. not, in the course of one week, have carried | thing to apprehend in the way of retaliation ? a mine under the rampart of Junot's strong. | Judge, reader, of the badness of a cause, in est fortress There would have been no re. support of which such an argument is re. gular investiture necessary; no line of cir. | sorted 10.---But, as ibe reader will per. cumvallaiion ; none of the precautions usual ceive, we are now, it seems, to answer those ly adople:t in cases of regular siege ; because who defend the Convention, not those who sailies and succours were out of the question, execrate the Convention and defend Wel. Did ever man conceive, that, under such lesley. Reader, we have heard the delencircumstances, a breach could not be made ders of Wellesley assert, in the most posiin six days ? Never; and, when my cor tive manner, that he protested against the respondent reminds me of Saragossa and Convention, and against any compromise at other open towos, which have exhibited to all with the French; that he had nothing to the world instances of long and successful do with negociating the armistice which he resistance, my answer is, that it has not signed; that the French general wrote it beeir owing to the strength of the place, but out with his own hand; thai Dalrymple, at to the strength and courage of the defenders. Kellerman's request, commanded Wellesley Let him slew me an instance, wherein he to put his signature to it; and, that, after assailant had, with a third of his force, very earnest remonstrances, he finally yield. beaten the assailed but the day before, and ed obedience to the hateful command. had all the country around for friends, while Those defenders have plyed us with dissera his enemiy had nothing but enemies witbin tations upon military discipline; they have and without ; let him shew me an instance tald us, that absolute power in the chief and like this, wherein a successful, of a long, implicit obedience in his inferiors are the defence has been maintained, and I will say, soul of an army; and, calling in the terri. that he has advanced something worth listen. | ble to the aid of the persuasive, they have ing to ; but, for an instance of this sort he reminded us, that if poor Sir Arthúr had. will search history in vain. As if for the disobeyed the mighty Sir Hew, the latter purpose of furnishing us with a striking in- I might have run him through the body ! stance of the iniserable shifts, to which the Did they not assert and reason thusa Nay, partizans of Şir Arthur Wellesley are driven the gaudy, chariot-lounging, the painted and (for he must, at last, stand responsible for piano-playing strumpeis about town, who, the Convention), this writer reminds me, / as part of their regular calling, deal in the that the people of Lisbon, the dear good pathetic as well as in lies, trumped up a folks of Lisbon, were at the mercy of Junot; story of Sir Arthur's going upon his knees and, that it was our duty to prevent him, to prevail upon Sir Hew not to bring such by any means whatever, from cominitting a disgrace upon his country. Did not his any cruelties upon them, which cruelties he defenders say, that he was to be considered, might have committed, if we had refused as to the Armistice, as no more responsi-, him such terms as he demanded. It is pity | ble than the clerk of an attorney or a that this argument has been so long delayed; | banker, who signs a document or draft in for it would have applied equally well against the name of his master? Did they not sending the expedition to Portugal, where | throw all the blame, all the responsibility, it bas, at an enormous expence, purchased | upon Sir Hew, whose fame they blasted, us deep disgrace, and done infinite injustice and whose carcase they threw down before and injury to our allies of Portugal, Spain, us, to be trampled and spit upon ? Did and Sweden. Indeed, it would apply against they not, in support of their great assertion every attempt to drive the enemy out of any respecting the Protest, tirst publish and theu town or place. It is a sweeping argument; quote, as from vouchers of undoubted au. the universal argument of the coward: “I thenticity, numerous extracts of " letters " would attack you, bur I am afraid of the from the army," the whole of which ex
consequences." What! did not Junot 1 tracts spoke of the famous Protest, blained well know, that, at last, he must become Sir Hew and Burrard, but were particularly really responsible for all the cruelties he com- | strong and clear as to the Protest ? Every. mitted upon the people of Lisbon ? Did he sycophant in London had this Protest upon not know, that we had cords to hang with his lips. Protest, Protest, “the grllant Sir and muskets to shoot with ? Or, was he ap. “ Arthur's Protest," the " Conqueror of prized, r y any means, that we were so gen- " Virneira's Protest!" This was the cry tle a people, or had committed our armies | through the regions of Whitehall, and was to the care and commard of generals so faithfully echwed by the punks of the squares.