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Spaniard, I should be for punishing the old peculators at any rate; for while they remain unpunished it is a mockery to talk of any measures for the public good. There is still another reason for wishing the struggle to be of pretty long duration : it will give time for the principles of the Patriots to spread over other countries; it will give time for discussion in those other countries; men will hear that such or such a change has taken place in Spain, that the reason of it was such or such, and that the effect will be this and that; and, as the Spaniards proceed in their work of renovation and “ reform of abuses,” there will be other nations ready to make a comparison, and to feel shame at being behind hand with them, especially if there should exist an intimate intercourse between them and Spain. There are some persons, who seem to be delighted with the resistance of the Spaniards, regarding it merely as the means of restoring every thing to its situation of twenty years ago. But, they may be assured, that, if such were the object of the Spaniards, it would fail. Things can never be brought back to that situation; and, the event will prove, I trust, that the resistance of the §o, will have precisely a contrary effect. Buonaparté was bringing the state of twenty years ago back again as fast as possible. He meant, and still means, to
the dynasty was become indispensible.
make a mere change of dynasties all over Europe, and then to have sitten down quietly amidst a world of slaves; but, the Spaniards, from whom he expected no resistance at all, threaten totally to frustrate his views, and to give to the other nations an example well worthy of their imitation. —I have often had occasion to observe, that, if Napoleon were to make such an attack upon England as should give rise to an opinion that he would finally become its master, the first to join his standard would be those sycophants and panders, who now accuse others of a want. of loyalty. This has been exactly the case in Spain. The whole of this infamous tribe, with the late prime minister at their head, are now in the court of Buonaparté, having first, been bribed to betray their country, upon the vitals of which they have so long preyed, into his hands. Infamous miscreants' I dare say, that they have, for years, claimed a monopoly of Joyalty ; I dare say, that the virtuous and brave men, who now complain of “the late base and infamous go“ vernment,” were, by them, considered as being enemies to their country; I dare say, that the men, whom we are now assisting, and who declare for “a reform of
abuses,” were, by them and their hireling news-papers, represented as harbouring designs to overthrow the government, to destroy all order, property, and law; I dare say they were consideredasdemagogues, libellers, and traitors, whom it was the bounden duty of every man in authority to stigmatize, harrass, oppress, persecute, and, if possible, take off by some means or other. Oh! that king and his family are, at this moment, an excellently useful example. In their fate may be seen what it is for kings and princes to take sycophants and panders to their bosom, while they cast a scowling eye upon, and drive from their presence, all those who come with femonstrances in behalf of the people. Here is a prime minister and his whole shoal of underling courtiers gone over to the enemy in a body ; and, what is still better, being formed into a Junta to deliberate upon what is to be done, their very first act is a declaration, that the late government was become so bad, that nothing could mend it, and that even a change of Vil. lains ! As if it were any but themselves, who had rendered the government so bad , and as if they, when in power, would not have put to the rack and torn piecemeal, any one who should have but half insinuated what they have now openly declared and proclaimed.— In dismissing this subject, for the present,
I cannot refrain from pointing out, as wor
thy of unqualified approbation, the very
great, the apparently unparalleled exertions,
which our ministers are making for giving the Spanish patriots assistance. To be sure they must sleep neither night nor day, if they mean to keep pace with the wishes of the nation at large ; for never, I believe, was there any thing so popular, any thing that inspired half so much enthusiasm amongst the people, as the cause of the Pa-. triots of Spain; whence the ministers and their master may learn what is the real taste of Englishinen. Our government, as will be seen from lord Castlereagh's letter to the Mayor of London, acknowledges the existence and authority of a “ Provisional government' in Spain. It is not a regency, or a lieutenancy, or a commission; it is a government, erected by the nation, for the managing of its affairs; and, therefore, while our ministers are laudably making such great exertions to assist the cause of the Patriots, I hope they will steer clear of the embarrassment that would inevitably arise from any thing meddling, on their part, about the king of Spain. If Buonaparté finds, that he cannot beat the Patriots and impose sense and the spirit to despise, of whatever
his brother upon them, he will, very likely, set up the king of Spain, or the prince of Asturias, again; and, then he will be fighting for the king of Spain as well as we, if we are foolish enough to adopt this line of proceeding. No : send the Patriots arms, ammunition, provisions, money, ships, and men; but, send them no commands as to what they are to do in forming a government for themselves. If the statements, in the newspapers, be true, the preparations weare making for sending off aid to the Patriots are of a magnitude worthy of the cause and of ourselves. - I repeat the expression of my thanks to the ministers for this, and I am sure they will receive the thanks of the whole country, with the exception of those only, whom, I hope, they will have the
rank they may be—It is a subject of curious speculation what will be the conduct of the American States with respect to Spain. They would, upon hearing that the king and prince had abdicated the throne, in behalf of the Buonapartes, be greatly alarmed; nor will they be very well pleased, when they find, that a revolution is taking place, especially under our auspices. The old rotten government of Spain made the Spanish nation an excellent milch cow to them as well As to France. They will not like to hear, that Spain is likely to have a vigorous government, that government being naturally in close alliance with England, as it will be if a totally neu government be formed. Jonathan will be puzzled to know what to do. If he has sense enough to get the better of his vanity, to give up the idea of being a “great nation,” and content himself with his barter and sale, he may yet do very well. But, if he persists in his big talk, and his spiteful though impotent measures, I think things are working, as well abroad as at home, in a way that promises to produce a speedy breaking-up of his boasted confederation. If the Spanish Patriots should succeed, as there is now some reason to hope, there will be nothing for which they will have to thank Jonathan. France having stolen part of the territory of Spain, Jonathan stood a ready purchaser. This territory, if the Patriots succeed, he will have to resign, upon principles of common sense as well as of common law. If Jonathan should see France likely to sink, he will rise upon her, and you will hear his Cerberean Pres; barking at her from the first column to the last. Next to Jonathan's hatred of Enghndis his partiality for the strongest; therehio, if Buonaparte should chance to slip, *him, of all things, beware of Jonathan;
for, under such circumstances, Jonathan is a very Hector of Troy. Florida, under a wise and spirited government, will be a formidable neighbour to Jonathan, and that neighbour, if we have the wisdom to encourage, by all the means in our power, the forming of an entirely new government in Spain, will and must be our friend. Let Jonathan ponder well upon these matters, for they are closely connected with his future fate. Botley, 7th July, 1808.
Delivered to the Parliament by the Lords
Commissioners, at the Prorogation of the
Parliament, on the 4th of July, 1808.
“ My Loh Ds AND GENTLeMEN, We have it in command from his majesty to express to you the great satisfaction which he derives from being enabled, by putting an end to the present session of parliament, to terminate the laborious attendance which the public business has required of you.The measure which you have adopted for the improvement of the military force of the country, promises to lay the foundation of a system of internal defence eminently useful, and peculiarly adapted to the exigencies of these times.—The sanction which you have given to those measures of defensive retaliation, to which the violent Attacks of the Enemy upon the commerce and resources of this kingdom, compelled his majesty to resort, has been highly satisfactory to his majesty.—His majesty doubts not that in the result the enemy will be convinced of the impolicy of persevering in a system which retorts upon himself, in so much greater proportion, those evils which he endeavours to inflict upon this country.—GentleMEN of The House of Commons, We are commanded by his majesty to return his most hearty acknowledgements for the chearfulness and liberality with which the necessary supplies for the current year have been provided.—His majesty directs us to assure you, that he participates in the satisfaction with which you must have contemplated the flourishing situation of the revenue and credit of the country, notwithstanding the continued pressure of the war; and he congratulates you upon having been enabled to provide for the exigencies of the public service, with so small an addition to the public burthens.—His majesty commands us to thank you for having enabled him to make good his engagements with his allies; and to express to you the particular gratification which he has derived from the manner
in which you have provided for the establishment of his sister, her royal highness the Dutches; of Brunswick. My Lords AND GENTre MEN, His majesty has great satisfaction in informing you, that, notwithstanding the formidable confederacy united against his ally the king of Sweden, that sovereign perseveres, with unabated vigour and constancy, to maintain the honour and independence of his crown ; no effort has been wanting on the part of his majesty to support him in the arduous contest in which he is engaged.—The recent transactions in Spain and Italy have exhibited new and striking proofs of the unbounded and unprincipled ambition which actuates the common enemy of every established govern. ment and independent nation in the world. —His majesty views with the liveliest interest the loyal and determined spirit manifested by the Spanish nation, in resisting the violence and perfidy with which their dearest rights have been assailed.—Thus nobly struggling against the tyranny and usurpation of France, the Spanish nation can no longer be considered as the enemy of Great Britain; but is recognized by his majesty as a natural friend and ally.—We are commanded to inform you that communications have been made to his majesty from several of the provinces of Spain, soliciting the aid of his majesty. The enswer of his majesty to these communications has been received in Spain, with every demonstration of those sentiments of confidence and affection which are congenial to the feelings and true interests of both nations : and his majesty commands us to assure you, that he will continue to make every exertion in his power for the support of the Spanish cause ; guided in the choice and in the direction of his exertions by the wishes of those in whose behalf they are employed.—In contributing to the success of this just and glorious cause, his majesty has no other object than that of preserving unimpaired the integrity and independence of the Spanish monarchy. But he trusts that the same efforts which are directed to
vinces of Spain, of their friendly disposition towards this kingdom ; his majesty is pleased, by and with the advice of his privy council, to order, and it is hereby ordered, —First, that all hostilities against Spain, on the part of his majesty, shall immediately cease.—Secondly, Tbat the blockade of all the ports of Spain, except such as may be still in the possession or under controul of France, shall be for thwith raised.—T hirdly, That all ships and vessels beionging to Spain shall have free admission into the ports of his majesty's dominions, as before the present hostilities. -- Fourti.ly..., T i.at all ships and vessels belonging to Spain, which shall be met at sea by his majesty's ships and cruisers, shall be treated in the sange manner as the ships of states in antity with his majesty, and shall be suffered to carry on any trade now considered by his mojesty to be lawfully carried on, by neutral ships. –
Fifthly. That all vessels and goods belonging
to persons residing in the Spanish colonies, which shaft be detained by any of his majesty's cruisers after the date hereof, shall be trooght into port, and shall be carefully preserved in safe costody, to await his taraj-sty's further pleasure, until it shall be known whether the said colonies, or any of them, in which the owners of such ships and goods reside, shall have made coremon cause with Spain against the power of France. —And the right honourable the lords countnissioners of his majosty's treasury, his majesty's principal secretaries of state, the lords commissioners of the admiralty, the judge of the high court of admirsky, and the judges of the courts of vice ada), ralty, are to take such measures herein as to them may respectively appertain. Lord Castlereagh's Letter to the Mayor of London, dated 1st July, 1scs. . My Lord, I have the honour to acquaint your lordship, that dispatches have been received from major-general Spencer, dated off Cadiz the 6th inst. by which it appears that a negociation had been entoreditio between his majesty's naval and military commanders of that port, , with deputies appointed on the part of the Provisional government of the province of Ağdalusia, assembled at Seville, the result of which had been forwarded for the approbotion of the said goveriiment—Every arrogenient had been taken for the reduction of the French ships, and admiral Purvis had been invited by the Spanish cominanders to anchor, his fleet at the mouth of the harbour, with a view to co-operate in contpelling the common enemy to surrender.--It appears that the southern provinčés of Spain had decla
red against France, and dispatches of the 4th instant received from lieut. general Sir II. Dalrymple, at Gibraltar, mention that the Spanish army before that fortress, reinforced by the greater part of the garrison of Ceuta, had marched against the French.
SrANish Revolution.— Proclamation by the Superior Junta of the Government. Dated 7th June, 1808. (Continued from page 32.) When the morning of our prosperity dawns, is it possible to conceive that men incapable of the high destiny prepared for them, who lay claim to the honourable title of true Spaniards, and upright friends of their country, should seek to deceive you, and give us up to all the horrors of civil war, at the very moment when the hero, who is the author of our present blessings, and must be the wonder of posterity, was fully employed in the developement of those plans which he had formed for the prosperity of Spain. Certainly the Junta of the government wish to remove this error on the part of the Spaniards, so praiseworthy for their patriotism; and in the meantime they at present see with pain, that some persons, led away by an inconsiderate zeal and by the anxieties of a mistaken ioyalty; that others misled with respect to the true situation of their country, and above all by the secret agents of a hostile nation, actuated by envy of the prosperity of the continent, have been able to lead into a spirit of error a part of the good inhabitants of some of the provinces, and to sow the seeds of disunion and insurrection. Brave Spaniards ! should you permit yourselves to be deceived by their deceitful pretences? Understand you not that those who in such critical circumstances become the apostles of insurrection, and counsel you to disobey your superiors, aie the true enemies of your country : What do those. *xciters of uproar and dissension aim at 3 Is it the restoration of your old monarchs : These are out of Spain :--what can they exPect from your impotent efforts 2–Is it to ‘efend the laws on which you make your. future prosperity to does ?, W no then thinks of annulling them?–On the contrary, , is it not in contemplation to restore to the . nation its ancient freedom and original constitution, a blessing which it has only, been. Permitted us within these few days to think. of Mistaken inhabitants of the provinces, What would you be at # Will you bring. down upon your heads all the horrors of war, *e your fields laid waste, your cities burnt, . Your habitations destroyed? Think you that a tumultuous levy of brave inhabitants,
without military skill, without chiefs, without money, without magazines, without provisions, will be ab: to withstand experienced armies, and soldiers grown old in the habits of victory The Junta still flatters itself that yo will reflect on the fatal consequences which your first steps most infallibly produce, it unfortunattiy a foolish obstimacy prevent you fiom quickly returning to the path of submission and patriotism, which a moment of error has permitted you to desert. And to convince you, that this only object is the better to instruct you, that the prince who adores them, that the emperor of the French, who holds our destinies in his hand, has no other view than to promote your prosperity, the Junta will make known to you tle intentions of the new sovereign who comes to rule you. Hear and judge : —The Cortes, those ancient sureties of your freedom, will be re-established, more powerful and better constituted than they had ever been ; they shall be assembled at least every three years, and as often as the wants of the nation shall make their assembling necessary. The yearly expenditure of the royal establishment shall be limited; the sum taken out of the royal treasury for that purpose shall never be increased; it shall only be the half of what has hither to been appropriated to the same purpose. The Roman catholic religion shall be exclusively that of Spain ; no other worship shall be permitted. Finally, the Junta of government have strong reasons to hope that the personal contributions levied doring the present war will be considerably dinninished in consequence of the improvements which the new government intends to make in the mode of its collection ; and while the warlike and political situation of Europe will require the greatest exertions for increasing our marine, the diminution of our land, forces may be hoped for. Add to this, that useful reforms will be gradually made in all the departments, public credit shall be restored, the debt shall be fixed and paid offin a few years.-The administration pi justice holl be made certain by invariable rules. The sovereign authority shall not be permitted to influence its course. Agriculture will be, encouraged, cotomerce inimated, and population increased. The army and navy will resume their antient lustre; all the means calculated to secure general prosperily will be put in motion. Judge then, whetherit is your interest to draw your swords, in order that your own happiness and that of your posterity may be prevented, and whether those who light up the fire of discord among you are true Spaniards, and friends of their country. You now know,
Spaniards, the destiny which awaits you if you preserve among yourselves tranquillity and order—if you heartily unite with your government. Every thing tends to your benefit, and approximates the moment when your happiness shall commence. But if you forget this wholesome advice of the Junta, you may dread the just wrath of a monarch who will punish a blind and obstinate criminality with as much severity as he won!d nobly forgive the error of a moment. Are you ignorant that numerous French armies are already in Spain? Do you not know that still more numerous armies are now crossing the frontiers? The provinces which do not immediately return to their duty, will be occupied by the French troops, otreated with all the severity of martial law. The lieutenant-general has already given orders for several divisious to advance and punish
the rebellious, but the Junta of the govern- |
ment wishing to save several provinces, in which disturbances have cominienced,
from the danger which threatens them, have,
on the application and in name of these provinces, acknowledged their error, and premised to return to order, his imperial highness has graciously accepted their request. has suspended the punishment of the guilty, but that punishment will be terrible if the traitorous suggestions of the evil disposed should have more power over the minds of the Spaniards, than the paternal voice of their magistrates, their clergy and all their authorities, civil, and military. Address of the Leaders of the Patriots, in seoveral of the Provinces and Principalities of Spain. Dated in the Month of May, 1808. - - - ARRAGon. Providence has preserved in Arragon an immense quantity of muskets, ammunition, and artillery, which have not treacherously been sold, or delivered to the enemies of our repose. Your patriotism, your loyalty, and your attachment to the good customs which you have inherited from our ancestors, indueed you to shake off the disgracesul yoke, which was prepared for us by sedition, and by the false promises of the French government, which regulating-F—'s conduct by the most abominable Machiavelism, merely endeavoured to deceiveus and all Spain in order to cover with shame and disgrace the most generous nation upon earth. You have placed implicit confidence in othe," and this honour which you have bestowed on me undeservedly, obliges me to tear the veil of the most detestable iniquity and injustice. My life, which oan only be of any value to me as far as it can promote your happiness and’
let us defend the most just of causes,
we shall be invincible. The esemy's troops now in Spain are not able to withstand Our efforts. Woe betide them, should they ever dare to repeat in any other Spanish town, what they did in Madrid on the 2d May, sacrificing without pity, and calling those seditious and assassins, of whom they had but very lately received honours and favours, which they did not deserve. Bayonne has witnessed and will remember the acts of violence, which after a long series of treacheries and frauds, have been committed ; acts of violence, which clearly appear by the striking contradictions found in the papers published, where Charles IV. is charged with having conspired with a minister, who is afterwards appointed a member of the council of government; where the king, his son, who was never married but once, is questioned about his first wife. . In consequence thereof, it is my duty to declare, and I accordingly do hereby declare what follows:–1. That the French Emperor, all the individuals of his family, and every French general and officer, shall be personally responsible for the safety of the king. and of his brother and uncle. 2. That, in
cover the truth. Fear not, Arragoni.
case any violence should be attempted against
bours, the inhabitants of Valentia, and all