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ticable-weak and insufficient, certainly, | its tranquillity, and add to the calamities of as its own resources are without the prompt | its situation? Your noble conduct corresand efficacious aid which it promises itself | ponds, as might be expected, with the vafrom your excellency. With respect to the lour and virtue which form your character, nueasures of another kind wlioh without The council rejoices that you follow the addaubt will be necessary for the salvation of vice it formerly gave you, and that you trust the country, and its elevation to that rank to in its paternal solicitude. Continue, faithwhich it rose in the times of its prosperity, ful Spaniards, to be calm, that the worthy it beloogs to the council merely to rouse and chiet, and the magistrates who preside over excite the authorities of the nation, with you, 'may meet all the dangers which can which it will co-operate by contributing for occur, and tulal with exactress all their obthe general welfare, its influence, its coun Jigations. When fame admires and publishsel, and its knowledge. As it is not possible es the victories of our valiant countrymen to adopt, under the present extraordinary cir- | over the invincibles of Marengo, Austerlitz, cumstances, the expedients pointed out by and Jepa, it is not possible that you could the laws and customs of the nation, the commit the shameful act of warming your. council will not occasion delay by elaborately selves by the conflagration of iheir houses suggesting what might perhaps be the fit and efects. Such actions would fill with means of fixing the representation, and horror the virtuous armies which are surascertaining the opinion of the nation; and rounding us for our protection. They have

confines itself for the present to the indica- | left their properties to detend ours; they Ftion of a measure in which it would concur bave abandoned their hearths, and been la.

with the greatest satisfaction, viz.--that your vish of their lives, because they would not excellency would be pleased to send, with endore tbe slavery of our good king, and the greatest dispatch, deputies who enjoy the death of the monarchy; and it is your entire confidence, and who, acting in through their efforts only that we are free concert with the persons named by the froni a perfidious enemy who persecuted us. Juntas of the other provinces and the We are not so perfidious (you will answer), council, might confer on this most impor | that while they are approaching, covered tant object, making such arrangements that with glory and the blood of the enemy, we all projects and expedients proceeding from should forget our obligations, and occupy this common centre may be as expeditious ourselves solely in judging arbitrarily of the as the end to be attained may require. fidelity and conduct of our fellow countryYour excellency has displayed such striking men. . This is the language of honour, proofs of your constant aitachment to the

aitachment to the which characterizes you: do not forget it. king, whom Providence has given us, and of Yes! it is the malevolent, who cover their your ardent zeal for the honour and fidelity depredations, their confiagrations, and their of the nation, that the council cannot but homicides, on such mournful occasions, expect with entire confidence, that your with the pretext of justice, without reflectsentiments will concur with those of the ing, that it is not lawful for any one to be, other provincial Juntas, to whom it has this of his own authority, the adorinistrator of day transmitted the present manifesto : and justice. The supreme tribunal assures you, that you will continue to eviuce the same that if there have been among us any traisolicitude and zeal you have hitherto shown, tors to their sovereign and their country, it as well in dispatching to the council and will avenge their crimes, and if they merit: capital the prompt aid of troops, which will it, cast them away, as unworthy of the shelter them from fresh oppression, as in name of Spaniards. Judge no one, for uniting the aid of your authority and ability that renders you liable to sacrifice many into that of his supreme council, in concerting nocent. Adore Divine Providence, which measures for the defence of the whole nation. | has known how to humiliate in an instant May God preserve your excellency many the proud, and which will as little suffer to years.! ! Nos , f

remain unpunished incendiaries and assassins. Proclamation of the Council of Castile, ta --Worrhy citizens: good men ! and tre

the People of Madrid, on the Departure patriols! Arm yourselves against the "iniof the French, Aug. 5. rosen quity of those who purpose to grow rich Generous and worthy people of the ca.. with your property, the price of the sweat pital of Spain! The council addresses you; of your brows. The council watches for and betore it states its sentiments to you, it your safety. Lend them aid, and impeach asks are you capable of availing yourselves those who assume the false title of neigh of the misfortunes of your country in the bours, but are mere vagabonds, who, fyirg critical state in which it now is, ta periurb from before their own magistrates, conceal'

their vices amid the confusion of the capi- | await you, to embrace you, and proclaim tal. Already your victorious countrymen you our deliverers. O how happy tbat dar! are near, crowned with laurels, which will | how true that joy! Wipe away your tears, not fade in the course of future ages. All Europe you disconsolate widows, and you wretched has been surprised at the progress of their rapid orphaps, who have lost those whom you lov. victories. Arragon, Catalonia, Valencia, An- | ved! Your fathers, and your faithful hus. dalusia, La Mancha, Estramadura, Murcia, bands, died in the field of honour, in the Carthagena, Castile, Leon, Asturias, San. defence of their country, they perished, tandur, and Gallicia, have shed around them but their rhemory shall not perish. Here never fading glory. Already they have rais you will meet with generous and grateful ed numerous armies ; already they have de- souls, who will provide for your maintefended the principal points of Spain; alrea pance, as your liusbands and fathers provi: they have secured the chief maritime ports, ded for theirs. The Spanish nobility are and captured ships and squadrons at Cartha- distinguished for their generosity and greatgena. We owe all to God, and our Lady, ness of soul, and will not deny a debt as the Virgin, who have protected ourcause. Let flattering as it is just. God grant that no us, therefore, cast of our lethargy, and pu evil-minded persons may frustrate, by theit rify our manners, which were arrived al excesses and rapine, such laudable intenmost at the pitch of complete corruption. I tions, and fill this city with lamentation and Let us acknowledge the calamities which mourning. Worthy neighbours ! it is for the kingdom and this great capital have en- you we act: live in confidence that the dured, as a punishment necessary for our council and all the magistrates of this capi. correction. The innocent victims, whose tal will protect you, and will deliver over blood has streamed from their native soil, the guilty to the severest punishment. God have implored forgiveness for us. The one grant that there be no occasion to draw the immortal and onnipotent God of armies has | sword of justice ; let it be employed against heard their supplications, and is appeased. | the enemies of the nations against the op. Will it be just that we should now commit | pressors of our liberty, and against those new abominations, robberies, insurrections, who, violating their promise, avail themand excesses? There cannot be a being of selves of our defenceless state to sacrifice us: so great ingratitude as to think this. Unite, May it please Heaven to grant, speedily, virtuous Spaniards, to receive, as soon as į the fulfilment of those desires which are possible, the reward of your heroic fidelity. engraved on the hearts of all Spaniards, and cabin. The government, and the faithful pro- l those of its council! D. BARTOLOME vinces, will be filled with joy, when the Munoz. council exhibits before you and all Europe Proclamation to the Biscayañs.-Dateid the constant firmness with which the men

Bilbon, Aug. 6. of honour, the most elevated nobility, the Noble Biscayans! - The bitter grief which superior tribunals, and the chiefs of the oppressed your hearts, at seeing your native pation, have sustained your cause, and the i land threatened with the odious yoke of the rights of the throne. Not a few individuals most cruel slavery, has at length broken among them have been led by fraud and through the barriers which the irresistible force far beyond the limits of Spain ; and, force of circumstances had imposed upon though without liberty, and exposed to the you; yes, your sufferings are now at an severest insults, they have proved the in- end ; and a generous youth, full of holy flexibility of their loyalty, and the religious ardour, are flocking with eagerness to their purity of their opinions. Distrust even' standards. You called for chiefs to command their signatures, which have been circulated you; and you now see placed at your head among you, and wait with patience for the men celebrated for their talents and military testimonies of their conduct. The princi knowledge, who will conduct you as it pal author of these calamities is free, and were by the hand to victory. The creation beyond your jurisdiction ; but heaven will of a presiding junta, to direct your opera. not pertnit him to remain unpunished. 'tions, has been one of the principal objects And you, ye victorious armies of Spain ! of your careful attention. Here you possess fly and protect this capital which longs for it, addressing you in the language of truth. you. Till then it has no other defence, than -Inhabitants of Biscay! cast yoor eyes in the heart of the kingdom, and the recent back on the ages which have passed, and departure of the enemy. Let us together | you will see your ancestors at one time reprostrate ourselves before the sacred altars pulsing the Carthagivians; at another deof our God, and return him thanks for his saying the hosts of Rome; at one period wonderful mercy. Here your fathers, your w granted to them the honourable distincməthers, your brothers, and your friends, \ tion of serving in the van of the armyo at

another, the privilege of citizens. Tinitate | church, to whom he had sworn fidelity at the glorious examples of your so worthy her altar. Bat let us draw off the veil that i progenitors.--Yet know that absolute sub- covers so great iniquity. The first victim ordination to your chief, and severity of that was sacrificed to his ambition has been discipline, are the first of martial virtues, your shepberd. Rome, the centre of faith without which none can present themselves and the shield of religion, has been prostiwith the hope of success in the plains of tuted. The idol Dagon has been united to honour. The junta promises itself that you the cruel Antioch of ous days to accomplish will possess them in an eminent degree.- Let the destruction of religion, which is the thu unholy voice of party passions for ever | great bar to his perfidious designs. However, disappear from among you : and let the do not despond. The successor of St. Peter suggestions of enyy hold no sway in your į is still extant, though overwhelmed with bosums. No; let a perfect and indissoluble affliction ; groaning under his chains, he onion reign among you. Your interests are lifts his eyes and tremulous hands to heaven, the same-the sentiments which animate imploring incessantly the protection of the

fou alike--and the cause which you defend, God of hosts over his flock !-Oh! the common. Will you, therefore, seek to happy effects of religion ! In this fatal sia

Jurn your force against your brethren and nation, my soul, penetrated with Christian wountrymen, and to give the victory to your feelings, learns with transport and surprise,

nemies? Perish so disgraceful an idea! | that Spain, lappy Spain, has remained true det the liberty and property of individuals to her religion and king. I hasten, my bee most religiously, respected, and let the loved children, to surmount the shackles by povince of Biscay preserve the parisy of its which I am depressed, to transmit to your justoms, even in the midst of the din of kingdoms the circular that will testify to fans.--Biscayans! The religion of your | you of my gratitude. Arouse, and combat, Whers, according to whose boly maxims like David, the imperious Goliath of our ou have been educated the country to times.-Valorous Spaniards, sons of the hich you owe your existence the Lord | church, come and break the chains of your Sovereign) which the constitution and shepherd. Already my heart assures me o uws have prescribed to you—these are your sensibility; do not tarry ; raise the important objects which claim your at. | standard of faith ; victory invites yo'l; como nation, and oblige you to march out to the then to your brothers in boudage. Raise Serious confict. Can you bear to be the your tents, and pursue the usurper of paJalms of one man's ambition who has en jions. Enter into the heart of his domis caroured to enslave all Europe? No; nious, and follow him to the remotest li. ou rere not born for slavery.-Hasten then mits of the earth. Shew to the nations of Igire the most undoubted proofs of your the North that oppression is in iis agony,

Hour and patriotism, and rely upon all the and let the Spanish sword strike the decisive 5 distance, which the junta can aiford you. blow on the guilty head. Compassionate

by your temples be surrounded with lau the ill-fated kingdom of France, condolo of victory, and your name be immor will its people, and they will assist you to in the anals of Biscay! (Signed) overwhelm her traitcrous tyrani. Oh, with

Mathias HERRERO. PRIETO D. JUAN | what transport will the Catholic Ferdinand EXTER DE YERMO. D. FracisCO Borja learn the intrepidity and beroic loyalty of * ITADO DE CORCUERA, &c. D. JOSE bis subjects! The streight situation to

AVIZR DE GOITIA, Secretary of the Jun a which he is, like myseil, doomed, pre

foclamation of our Holy Father Pope Pius | cludes the neans to bin of manifexting the 170, VII, to the Catholic Spaniards. sentiments of his magnanimo!!3 herót. I - Beloved Children ;--You who deplore at feel vot the strength of saying more. If I23. foot of the aliar the wounds given to survive the calamity, and you spill your E g100-You who are still mindful that blood for religion, your country and mo.

form one people of brethren, join we, l warch, to whom I supplicate from beaven all 1e vicar of Christ; anproach ye families, | happiness, the world ball be witness to my

le remnant of vast destruction, to the 1 gratitude. - tone of my predecessors, to see ine, like The Supreme Council of Castile to the Capt.) ** Taniel, surrounded by lions , preserved his ! General of Arrogan-dug. 4, 1808. - Jerto by tbe juscrutable designs of Provia SIR-After having laboured for four suo.

Ace-1, see the vessel of St. Peter entrust- | cessive months under the most grievous op-, E l my care combated by the fierce apos. | pression, this capital has at last buen so for

te, whom nyself have placed on the itinate as to be liberated from the mumerous fone, and who, like a degenerate son, French troops, which bad invaded its pre-' pots for the destruction of his mother, the cincts and vicinity. The council which

has groaned under their galling yoke, would, or even taken part against their own country: deemn itself wanting to its duty, if, accre of this I have had sufficient evidence; and diting you and your gallant companions in to niy inexpressible sorrow have I known arms as the deliverers of the country, it did them direct the operations of the enemy, not hasten to manifest to you ils satisfaction, and witnessed theni approach with effrontery and the sentiments with which is hath been the walls of Saragossa, write inflammatory constantly animated, and has the happiness papers, and propagate doctrines dishonourto express at present. From the first mos able to the Spanish name. I am aware that inent of its liberation it has taken all the the council has not been at liberty to act measures, that circumstances have allowed, freely, and that they have been constrained to direct to the common cause, the loyalty to serve only as organs of the dispositions of and ardent vows of this faithful capital and that execrable government; but the general its whole district; these however, for the will of the nation having once been expresos present, will not be such as the zeal of the sed, it would have been highly important if council and of this city would wish ; they they had transferred then selves to the prop will be insufficient to the putting them free vinces, and made common cause with them, from fresh opression.-The council doubts / were it only to withdraw their sanction from not but your excellency will coincide with thecirculation of the scandalousand deceptious there iu this request, and cun:ribute to the writings which have made their appearance : safety of the capital and its public depart. and to this no insuperable obstacle appears ments, with all the eificacy in your power ; , to nie to have stood in their way; or had and the illustrious proofs of zeal and conduct there been any, the common interest and already must amply by you manifested, are welfare of the nation ought at any rate to à sufficient assurance to them that you will have risen paramount to every private spectadopt the means to the exigency of the cir- | lation. It is now nearly two months that cumstances.---To his excellency the Captain this city has been encompassed by the encos General of Arrogan, Don Joseph de Palafox | my; by the baseness of whose conduct we y Melzi.-By command of the council.- discern that they make crime their study. ARIAS Mon.

To rapine, violence, turpitude, and iniquity. Answer of his Excellency the Captain Ge they have added ferocity, by sacrificing even neral of Arragon, Don Joseph De Pala- | infants-- the sick and wounded ; nay, their for y Melzi, to the Council of Castile. very benefactors. They have bombarded y

The notification which you, under date this 'heroic city in a cruel manner; and of the 4th instant, have communicated to though their irruption into this kingdom me in the name of the council, and of has been well avenged, we have, neverthe which I had already the knowledge, has | less, not repulsed them without spilling the afforded me the most heartfelt gratification. | blood of many a brave and virtuous detendet Considering that the inbabitants of the car of the country, and without involving na pital, who have endured the most intolerable ny others in distress. Regarding mysel, vexation, owing to their loyal attachment have been more critically situated than any to their sovereign, which will eternally re- / other commander, being without one single dound to their honour, are now freed of soldier, and placed within immediate reach their invaders, it gives alike to me, and to of the enemy, from my proximity to his the good inhabitants of this kingdom univer. | frontiers, and liable to be attacked at once sally, cause of happiness and exultation from Catalonia, Castile, and Navarre ; but The unalterable integrity of the council, the in despite of all, our love for king, country, dignity of its ministers, and the wise policy and religion, has made me contemn all dan of which there has been ere now ample de- / gers, considering timidity and irresolution monstration, has rendered that court respect- | as tantamount to the greatest crime. I bare able even abroad. In the inelancholy cir. spared some assistance to Catalonia, to N34 cumstances in which Spain has been placed / varre, and other provinces, who have cheer by the most unparalleled treachery recorded fully acted with me, and claimed my pro in history, this court has not fulfilled its tection, and I have bappily been enabled to duties; many of the individuals of which repel the enemy, which I trust shortly to it was composed hare most satisfactorily jus- put to flight, if any part of the wreck tified themselves, whilst others, perhaps al- I shall remain. Then I shall fly to the soca lured by the seducive promises of the eneniy, cour of the capital, if needful, which I re or enstrained by the perversiiy of their dis- / quest you to represent to the council 10 position, have either remained irresolute,' promulgation.

· Pricted by Cox and Baylis, Great Queen Street ; published by R. Bagshaw, Brydges Street, Covens

Garde, where former Numbers may be had : sold also by j, Budd, Crown and Mitre, Pall-Mall,


Vol. XIV. No. 13.) LONDON, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 24, 1908. [Price 100,


[482 SUMMARY OF POLITICS stitement respecting the positive a pont of CONVENTIONS IN PORTUGAL. There the French force in Poringal. The wsy, in is an irksomeness in beginning to writupon which I, were I a com:vander upon such a subject, which has already been fully dis. 1 an (ccasion, should proceed, would be this: cussed, more especially when the w' ole of The enemy bad, in this country, such and those, to whon one's remarks are addressed, I such ti,C5; they were distribuied hus and have male np their minds upon it, and when it is : my force was sich and such' and there appears nothing to be ortered in onro: 11:15 2.0 thus was it dintributed. Then I sition to their opi: ion. Neverth-less, tiom | should come to a account of my prelini. the consideration, that the Register may be wary operations; next to a detil of the enpreserved, owing to its bookish form, some. | gagement; and should conclusie with a view what longer than most of tbe ocher periodi- 1 of the strenyih and situation of each ririy cal publications of the political kind, I shall after the erigge vent. This is the course siaie mi opinion of thuse tra:sactions, which

ply purs ed by the French in Their are recorded in the Government Gazetie, in accounts of their military operations, which, sertel in another part of this sheei, and in every quality, except those of filseliond, whicn hive excited so general a feeling of are well worthy of our imitation, but which, di siisfaction - When we took that view l upon this occasion, we have, I am afraid, of the situation of affairs in Portugal, which imitated in the exception and not in the was exhibited to us in the official papers of rule. From such an account, wbich is Sir Arthur Wellesley (inserted at page 407 too confused to be re: dabie nere it not for of this volume); when we bebeld the prow the sake of the exhilirating substance, one ess of our soldiers, in the battles, of wbich cannot pretend to say what was the exact fhose papers speak; when we were toldt, | force of the French in Portugal. Those that the French bad, besides the advantage | who bave tuken the pains to collect the fact of a perfect knowledge of the country and from scraps, here and there di persed, state of long preparation, the still greater adwain the French, force at 'fourtcen thousand men tage of an excellent position whence to previous to our attack of them, and at ten mike, or where to sustain, an attack; thousand men after that attack, which ended when we were told, just in so many words, in a “ signal defeat " on their part. Sir that, "in this action, in which the whole Arthur Wellesley's force was seventeen “s of the French force in Portugal was em: thousand men. He did not lose a thousand; “ ployed under the command of the Duke and, since the battle, he has been joined by " of Abrantes in person, in which the ene other generals and their troops, raising our « my was certainly superior in cavalry and army to the strength of Thirty thousand “ artillery, and in which not more than men, or thereabouts. Wel, then, if it hulf of the British army was actually en. I be true, that Sir Arthur Wellesv, with “ gaged, the French sustained a signal de. only nine thousand men (the hull" of his r feat, and lost thirteen pieces of cannon, | army), beat “the u hole" of the French “ twenty-three ammunition waggons, with force, in spite of all the advantages enjoyd powder, shells, stores of all descriptions, | by the former, of previous local familiar':”, " and twenty tbo:isand rounds of musket | long preparation, open retreat, choice of - ammunition." When we were to all position, and choice of the moment of aithis, and were informied, that, immediately tack; if this be true, had we not a right to after this brilliant success, our army was ang. ) expect, nay, had we not a right to claim mented to nearly double what it had before, and to demand at the hands of the com, been, we naturally expected, that, by the mander in Portugal, when he had thirty next arrival, seeing that the enemy could thousand men, the capture, or the local teceive no supplies, either by land or by destruction, of the remains of the French sea, we should be informed of bis surrender arm in Portugal? Had we not a right to al discretion. ---Sir Arthur Wellesley's ac- demand at his hands, the sending of Junot couat has been praised for its clearness. I and his army prisoners of war to that En. must confess, that I saw nothing like clear- giand which they had so often ibrearened in BESS in it, I saw Do where any explicit invade, or the making of them food for

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