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the meeting of the corporate body that any free-men at all should be made, which you will easily perceive to be the fact, from the small number of voters now in the Borough ; that, these meetings are called courts-leets, or law-courts, at which the Mayor presides, assisted by the eight capital Burgesses, who are sworn to be of good counoil (good lord') with the Mayor; by the Recorder; and by the Town Clerk, whom I shall have the honour, and no small one you will find it to be, of introducing to you anon; that, the court being thus assembled, on the days fired, as before-mentioned, the Mayor chooses two of the Eurgesses, who, when so chosen, are called Elizors, to be foreman of a jury; that, the Elizors then choose a number not less than ten, from amongst the freemen, who, together with the two Elizors form a jury, which jury, having first taken an oath in the form of a GrandJury oath, retire to the chapel (the parish church being at a distance) and draw up a presentment, which they sign, and then deliver it to the court; that, in this presentment, they may, if they see fit, include the nomination of new free-men, which free men, so presented, acquire, at the distance of a year and a day from that time, the right of yoting for members of Parliament.
In these rules, Gentlemen, you will see that there existed a complete check upon the | And here, Gentlemen, I am forcibly tempt
higher against the lower order in the Bo
rough, and you will now see how this check
was got rid of. There were found to be, at the last Michaelmas court (the time when the acts charged against the defendants were committed) but seven free-men in favour of Sir Christopher Hawkins. It was, there. fore, if the ancient custom was adhered to, impossible to procure the making of new free-men in his favour ; because, at the very least, it required, for that purpose, ten free men in his favour. The 19th of Octoter, is the day fixed for the holding of the autumnal court. Previous to this day, various means are stated to have been made use of, in order to bring over the requisite number of free-men ; but, these means having failed, the court, in a few minutes after it was assembled, adjourned, without any cause alledged, to the 26th of October ; and this, the charge stated, was for the purpose of bringing over free-men, in the mean while, by the means of bribery and corrup. tion. The 20th arrived, however, without the expected success ; now, therefore, as a last resource, it was determined to make up a jury which should be wanting in the accustomed proportion of free-men, which determination they thus executed. The
Mayor named two Elizors, in the usual way, one was David Warcoe and the other George Hoyte, and these two, instead of choosing ten or more FREE-MEN to be their co-jurors, chose the seven free-men in the interest of Sir Christopher Hawkins, and four cAPITAL EUR.Gesses one of whom, by-the-bye, was a reverend W.M. Edward Dillon, and and ther of them, a person in his dotage. This jury, as might be expected, presented some persons to be new free-men. There were six of them, I believe, but the exact number is immaterial. The free-men, who were in the interest cf the Cochranes, presented a protest against this proceeding; the facts were afterwards stated, by affidavit, to the Court of King's Bench, and upon those affidavits, a criminal information was issued, upon which information the defendants were put upon their trial, at the time and place above-mentioned, before Mr. Justice Bailly and a common jury; and I will now proceed to lay before you the evidence given in support of the charge, The first witness that was called, after a Mr. Hunt from London, who produced certain documents containing proof of the existence of the Borough, was a person who could speak as to some customs thereof, and also as to some rather unimportant circum
stances relating to the assembling and adjoin
of the court-leet, on the 19th of October.
ed into a digression, which, though it will extend a letter, that already threatens to be of an immoderate length, will, I am satisfied, give you a clearer insight, as to the political state of the county of Cornwall, then you will be able to obtain from any of, or all, the publications, at this day extant. When this person's name was called, the sudden direction of all eyes towards the spot whence his answer issued, together with the complaisant, and I wish truth would not let me add, the obsequious, look of but too many at the bar, made me conclude, that the person, about to be examined, was a lord, at the very least, and I could not help thinking to myself, that it was a good deal better to be a lord in Cornwall than in St. James's street. But, Gentlemen, guess, if you can, at my astonishment, when, upon the termination of the evidence of this man, to be known to whom some of the advocates, on both sides, seemed to be proud, I looked up behind me (to the side of the judge where he was standing) and perceived an attorney, of the name of Coode, with abundle of smoky papers in his hand, tied round with a bit of pack-thread! This was the Town-Clerk of Grampound, upon whose advice, as he him
self stated the court-leet of the 16th of October was adjourned, and who attended as townclark, on the 26, h of October. There was very little to excite interest in the conduct of this man, at Grampound; nor did his evidence seem to be very important ; but, what the devil entitled him to the privilege of giving his evidence from the side of the bench where the Judge was sitting ! I put this question to one of the counsellors, who, after having taken a moment as it were to reflect upon the probable cause, told me that Coode was the under-sheriff this year. Not satisfied with this, however, I applied, for surther explanation, to a neighbour on my left, who, at first, answered me with a “ hush, hush, hitsh,” raising his eyes slowly towards Coode, and, at last, fixing them upon him, in a look, expressive cf. that veneration and awe, which, through the windows of the print-shop in Pall. Mall, you see so admirably blended in the representation of App LARD kneeling before the Crucifix. In short, not to waste my and your time in minute descriptions, I found, that this man's name was Edward Coode, the partner of another attorney of the name of Charles Rashleigh ; that these men, as attornies, have the giving of, perhaps, three or four hundred fees in a year; that Rashleigh is Receiver-General of the county, and Clerk of the general meetings of the Deputy Lieutenants, that is to say, in fact, the representative of the Lord Lieutenant; that Coode is Deputy Clerk of the Peace for the county, Treasurer of the county, Town Clerk of the Boroughs of Grampound, St. Michael, and Tregony: that Coode is, almost every other year (the law prohibiting his being so every year), under-sheriff of the conty, in which years, you know, the law forbids him to be an attorney, ond, of course, you know, he casts his capacity of " attorney for those years, taking it up again at the end of each year; that Coode is, besides, a banker; that, together, or separately, these men are agents, in one way or another, for two thirds of all those who have influence in the county; that Rashleigh, whose interest put GREgo R, the late county member, in, has now put in his own nephew in Gregor's stead; that such, and so generally known and acknowledged, is the extent of their power, that the common people, who are backward neither in perceiving nor ridiculing the degradation of the higher orders, call these men, one King Charles and the other King Eduard. – Well might my poor friend Abelard cry “ hush"! Well might an ignorant crowd stare with admiration' But, that the lar
should look obsequious ! That there should
be met with, amongst gentlemen by profession, and, what is more, men of really great talents, a rivalship in this the most degrading sort of huggery, is a reflection, at which the mind sickens with disgust. The next witness called was EnwARD Ho ARE –Sir Christopber asked him on the 19th of October, if he would be upon the jury ; he answered that he was very willing; Sir C said that he wanted to bring in a few friends ; the witness told him he would vote for any of his friends; Sir C. told him that he would get nothing from the Cochranes; witness answered that he expected nothing; wo, then told by Sir C. that, if he would go into the jury, for the purpose of voting in free-nyen, he would always be a friend to him ; this was about half an hour before the Court Innet. WILLIAM Gov. EN said, that, about two or three days before the court met, on the 19th of October, the Mayor's son came for him and Restarick; they went to the Mayor's house ; Sir C. was there, and the Rev. Mr. Dillon was there ; Sir C. asked him to be on the jury, to bring in such and such men, the six that were proposed ; he answered that he would not, and that he thought there was no necessity of bringing in any fleeinen at that court; Sir C. said, that, if he would not, he could get ten of the party to bring in half the town, if he wished it ; answered that he thought he could not get one; Sir C. mentioned names; attended the court on the 19th ; remembers that several freemen were present ready to go upon the jury Restarick was not present at the conversa. tion between him and Sir Christopher. Joh N Brown said, that all the defendants (naming them) were present, when the court was adjourned, on the 10 h; Charles VARcoe (one of the Capital Burgesses put upon the jury) was so feeble as to be unable to walk alone ; Varcoe did not appear to hear his name when it was called; Varcoe's son touched his father, when his name was called, and said, “ you must say, here, fl. “ ther;" Varcoe, when sworn (by Mr. Coode) appeared to be in a torpid senseless state ; Varcoe was told when he was to kiss the book; says, that, in Jan. 1807, he heard John Croggon and Symons (who was Mayor when this transaction took place) say, that, at a former election, Varcoe was in a state of dotage, and did not know what he said ; has at different times, before October, 1807, heard the Rev. George Moore say, that there could not be legal. ly put upon a jury any more than two capital burgesses; and that all, except two, must be free-men, FRANcis Brown corroborates the evi.
dence of John Brown with respect to the dotage and imbecility of Varcoe he saw Varcoe sworn ; he saw Sir Christopher canvassing. Philip I.Ukr said, that, between the holding of the two co frts, the Rev. George Moore came to him, desired him and his wife to go to his house, and asked them if they would rather live well, or hard ; he answered, that, to be sure, he would rather live well; the reverend George Moore said he would give him a line to carry to Sir Christopher at Trewithen ; told the reverend Moore that he would not accept of it, and that he would not deceive his party for a thousand pounds ; the reverend Moore told him to go and consider of it ; here they parted. Being cross-examined, he said, that, on the 19th, the Cochrane party met, and that a paper was drawn up about who should go to the court and who shoul," stav away; that the old men were to stay a way : because the old men had not strogth to tarry upon the jury; it was understood that no presentments of freeinen were to be made : it was so agreed to ; tı.ey went to the court according to this agree ent ; believes that the object was to tire out the other jurymen ; at Goyen's, of the 29th, it was, from first to last, agreed, that no presentments of new free-ruen should be made; they confired their resolu, ion to the presenting of free-men. ANN. Luke corroborates the evidence of her husband as far as relates to the offers of the reverend Moore, and adds, that she was sent to communicate, and did communicate. to that very reverend gentleman, her hoisband's rejection of the offer. Is AAc WATTs says, that Varcoe did not know his own relations ; his victorals were cut for him, as for a child; on the 20th Varcoe told Watts that he did not know who was presented ; between the 19th and 20th of October, heard the Rev. Mr. Dillon say, while the free men were huzzaing in the streets, “We will have some of them one way “ or one way;” “ yes,” said Symons, the Mayor, “ for all their noise, we will do “for them;" Croggon said, “ they talk of “ power, but, next week, we will let them “see, whether we have any power or not.” Symons said, he could put of the court for three months longer if he liked, and that they would do for their twenty-seven before the next week was over ; Sir Christopher, who was present at this time, said, “ mark
C. said, “mind so and so, they shall repent ic of it."
into Goyen's ; he told witness that he would
Witness saw George Hoyte go
cause him to be presented (witness not being a free man) and that he and Varcoe were to be upon the jury. Between the two courts, George Hoyte told the witness, that Sir Christopher and the magistrates (meaning the Capital Burgesses) were going to meet that evening, being the 24th of October, to settle upon who should be presented, and that, if he liked it, he should be one of the Lew free-men. JAxios Cook corroborates the evidence in proof of Varcoe's do age; says that, for two years before, the old man was in a state of secon childhood. FR ascis okows says, that, between the two courts, he hearl Symons and John Croggon, talk about the court; both said, that they would make a presentment of new free-men next court, whether right or wrong. Jo HN BRow N said, that Siccombe, one of the fiew freemen presented, was not an inhabitant of the Borough at the time ; he never had a house in the place ; his father, indeed, lived at Grampound ; he was there only a few days before the 20th ; was there merely to see his friends Joseph Devo Nisi I RE, who is above sirty years of age, has never lived out of Grampound above a year; never remembers any Capital Largesses, except the two Elizors, being upon a jo, v of the Borough has talked up on the subject, with many old men, now dead, oi never heard them say that any such, tiling was. The evidence for the prosecution, which,
to make Watts a freeman upon the understood condition of the voting for Sir Christopher ; that Sir Christopher's asking Goyen to be upon the jury, for the avowed purpose of bringing in such persons as should be pointed out to him ; that all this was very mean and dishonourable, and not less unlawful, because, as each juryman was to be sworn, when he went into the jury, all these several endeavours were made for the evident purpose of causing men to act contrary to their oaths solemnly taken, endeavours upon which it was hardly possible to bestow reprobation sufficiently severe. “ The point," concluded he, “upon which “ your verdict must turn is, however, this ; whether the court of the 19th was adjourned with good or an evil intention, If you are of opinion, that the adjournnient was made from the persuasion that a fair and impartial jury could not be formed at that time, and that, to secure the laudable ends, for which the court was, or ought to have been holden, it was necessary to adjourn it, you will, of course acquit the defendants ; but, if you are convinced, that the adjournalient was made for the purpose of obtaining time to bring some of the freemen over to make such a presentment as would answer the self-interested views of Sir Christopher and the other defendants, then I am sure I need not observe to you, that a verdict of guilty must be the result of your deliberations.” Ten minutes, or a quarter of an hour's whispering together, on the part of the jury, prepared the audience for what was to follow, it being quite impossible, that, as to opinion upon the matter, there should be the hesitation of a moment. They told the Judge, that they could not agree. “If you are convinced, gentlemen, that “ the adjournment of the 19th was made, not for any laudable purpose, but for the purpose of bringing over, by promises, or otherwise, any number of free-men to be put upon the jury, in order to make such a presentment as would be likely to add to the number of free-men in Sir “ Christopher's interest, it appears quite * clear to me, that you ought to find the ‘ defendants guilty.” They turned round again, and, having literally laid their heads together for about five minutes, pronounced a verdict of NOT GUILTY; upon which, at eleven o'clock at night, a very numerous and respectable audience dispersed, leaving Sir Christopher Hawkins, who was, all the while, standing behind the peopla in the gallery, to an unenvied enjoy
He repeated: .
ment of the feelings naturally arising from an acquittal so pronounced. * To apply the knowledge derived from these details, to objects of a more general nature, shall be the task of some future day. For the present, Gentlemen, I shall conteit myscir with having made a record of transactions, so necessary to be well and universally known ; and shall console myself with the hope, that the day is not very distant, when, adopting your principles and imitating your conduct, the whole of the people of England, may raise their voice for that Purity of Election, without which, as the Judge observed upon these trials, our boasted constitution is, if possible, something less than a shadow. I remain, Gentlemen, * . Your faithful, and most obedient Servant, - W:1. Cobutor.
“ majesty's pleasure that a small sponge “shall hereafter be added to each man's “regimental necessaries.—By order of his “royal highness the commander-in-chief. “ —(Signed), HARRY CALvert, Adju“tant-general." - Cohn AGAINST SUGAR.
SiR,--In taking up the gauntlet you have thrown I, perhaps, may only prove my own weakness, and then be classed in your numerous list of vanquished knights of the quili. However, I will, withstanding all alarm poise my weak weapon, since the battle is not always to the strong. Your sentiments are clearly expressed; but, the assertions and arguments of some of your opponents coincide so ill with their proofs and conclusions, I confess, I am at a loss to discover whether they intended to advocate the cause of sugar, or of corn. At all events, their contention against the prohibition of the use of grain in the distilleries, when they admitted the existence of a partial scarcity, was ridiculous enough ; and betrayed more awarice than patriotism. I allude principally, to your cotemporary journalists and to the petitioners. I cannot, however, assent to the propriety of all your remarks on the question. in your last number, you exultingly ask “what will the barley growers say tow? since the bill passed it has continued loadvance, whilst oats have risen one third." his, Sir, is owing to the demand for both these articles in the North, where the partial rarcity exists; to the short crop of last year and to the shutting of the Dutch ports. In your former numbers, you have argued in favour of the continuance of the bill,
whatever may be the situation of the coun
try;, whether excluded from intercourse with the continent, or possessing the fruits of an abundant harvest; and on this point we differ. As a measure of general policy I deem it a bad one, since it destroys the magazine which the distilleries afford ; thus rendering us more dependent on the seasons and on foreign supply; it is, assuredly, as important to become independent of both these as of commerce. That this country has produced corn enough for its own conumption, and had considerable quantities to oare, may be proved by many authorities. I will take one which will shew, that when the farmer receives encouragement he will Provide for the wants of the nation. Anderon, in his Essays, states “the average quanjoy of all kinds of grain imported into Great Britains between 1710 and 1750 *mounted to 20,976 qrs. annually; the quan*y experted to 665,485 qrs. ; so that the
balance in our favour amonnted to 644,459 qrs. During this period, it will be observed, wheat could not be imported till the price amonted to 53s. 4d. and not even then under a duty of 16s. if above that price and not exceeding 80s, the duty 5s. But, mark the difference, in 1757 the corn laws were altered and 48s. was fixed as the import price, and the duty 6d. per q.; intueliately the exportation began to decrease o', on the average of years, between 1773 a.o.d 1793, the importation exceeded the exportation by 430,157 qrs. In 1775 the in ports. exceeded the exports by 972,400 q’s ; naking a difference in the quantity of corn produced in the years 1750 and 1775 of no less than 2,6; 9,850 qts." This deficiency, amounting to about one eight part of our consumption, cannot be attributed to any change of seasons; but to the aforementioned alterations in the corn laws. Precisely in the same manner will the interdiction of the use of grain in the distilleries. operate ; by abstracting a portion of demand, equal to their consumption, and thus reduce the price and the quantities produced. This, however, would not be of such inportance, were no other consideration involved ; for, the supply would soon proportion itself to the demand, and the farmer would receive just the same profit. But, when we reflect on the misery of dependence it becomes a matter of serious concern ; and I do contend that the distilleries, by consuming annually 470,000 qirs, may be considered as a provisional depot, containing that quantity, and which may be served out when necessity requires. Yet, we are told by those who would have the measure adopted uniformly, that this is a trifling consideration compared with the distressed situation of the West India planters: and you have recommended that each article should be brought to the still loaded with the same duties and run the race fairly. A little consideration will shew the fallacy of such reasoning. Mr. Spence has clearly proved in his pamphlet, entitled, “ the Radical Cause of the Distresses of the West India planters,” that, by a combination of circumstances, there are 140,000 hogsheads of sugar produced, and tially, more .., than there is a demand for, either at home or abroad —the committee estimate the consumption by the distilleries at 30,000 hogsheads and Mr. Rosanquet admits that this new demand would not raise the price sufficiently. This sort of relief, to be sure, would be more potent than the late order of the oughty Dunkirk hero respecting pig tails and the use of flour, in the event of familwe,