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division to take immediate possession of the passes of Sierra Morena. General Castanos deserves the highest praise for his well conceived plan, and for the cool determination with which he has carried it into execution, in spite of the popular clamour for an immediate attack on the position of Andujar.— Whilst the negociations were carried on, General Castanos received an intercepted dispatch from the Duke of Rovego to Dupont, ordering him to retreat immediately upon Madrid, as the army of Gallicia was rapidly advancing. This determined the General to admit the capitulation of General Wedel. French Force.—Division of IJuFont, 5000 rank and file.—Division of Wedel, 6000.--Total, 14,000.-Spanish Force. —Reding, 0000–Coupigny—5000.-Pena, C000.-Jones, 5000. — Total, 25,000*. Nearly 3000 of the French killed and wounded.--from 1000 to 1200 of the Spaniards ki!!ed and wounded. Terns of Capitulation.—The division of General Dupoat prisoners of war. The division of General Wedel to deliver up their arms till their arrival at Cadiz, where they are to be embarked and sent to Rochefort. There no longer exists a French force in Andalusia. (Signed) S. WHITTINGHAM, 13th Light Dragoons.—N. B. The division of General Dupont is also to return to France by Rochefort. By letters received from lieut.-colonel IDoyle, at Corunna, and from major Roche, at Oviedo, of the 8th and 9th instant, addressed to Viscount Castlereagh, one of his majesty's principal secretaries of state, it appears, that various letters, from respectable authorities, at Madrid, and also public gazettes, had been received, both at Corunna and Oviedo, stating, that on the 29th ult. in the evening, the French began the evacuation of Madrid. Upon the 30th the evacuation continued ; and, upon the 31st, Joseph Buonaparté, with the remainder of his troops, quitted the capital for Segovia. This measure was attributed to the French having received the account of the surrender of general Dupont's army in Andalusia.— The French carried with them all the artilłery and ammunition they could find means to convey, and spiked the cannon, and damaged the powder they left behind; they also plundered the palaces and the treasury; they were followed by the Spanish ministers who had acted under the French, and, in general, by all the French who were settled in business at Madrid. Upon the 1st of August it was believed there was not a Frenchman remaining in the capital.
* Of this total, one-half peasantry.
Admiralty-Office, August 16, 1808–Copy of a Letter from Pice-Admiral Lord Collingwood, Commander in Chief of His Majesty's Ships and Vossels in the Mediterranean, to the Hon. Is IV. Pole, dated on board the Ocean, off Cadiz, July 25, 1808, Sir, I have the pleasure to acquaint you, for the information of the lords commissioners of the admiralty, that the French troops, under general Dupont, consisting of about eight thousand men, surrendered themselves prisoners of war, on the 20th instant; having lost about three thousand killed in some partial actions, which took place on that and the three preceding days.-General Wedel, with about six thousand, who had arrived to reinforce Dupont, has capitulated on condition of his corps being embarket and sent to Rochefort.— The copy cf. : letter from captain Whittingham to lieut. general Sir Hew Dalrymple, detailing th operations and final success of the Spanid forces, I beg leave to inclose.*—I am, &c Colli NG wood. Copy of a Letter from Sir Charles Coton Bart. Admira/ of the Blue, &c. &c. t the Hon. IP. I?’. Pole, dated on board to Hilernia, off the Tagus, the 81st Jay 1 SOS. - Sir, Inclosed here with I o: the information of the lords commission of the admiralty, copy of a dispatch receiß by me this day from Vice Admiral Lot Collingwood, detailing the defeat and sui render of general Dupont's army, togethe with the capitulation of the force under go neral Wedel to general Castanos; by the fortunate events the whole of Andalusia said to be cleared of French troops. have the honour to be, &c.—(Signed)C. Cotton. Ocean, off Cadiz, July 24, 1808– the Scout I informed you, that the For forces, under general Dupont, have surre dered to the Spanish army; and having day received from the president of the so preme junta of government at Seville to official account of it, I do myself honour of transmitting a copy of it for yo information. — Collingwoop. — Admis. Sir Charles Cotton, Bart. Commander it Chief, &c. &c. &c. off the Tagus. Most Excellent Lord, – It is with th greatest satisfaction that the supreme jū. informs your excellency of the happy so cess which our arms have had over !
French army under generals Dupont wo
and Gobert, they having laid down their arms, as is set forth in the inclosed papers, which accompany this for your information, being persuaded of the noble interest your excellency takes in our most just cause.— The victory could not have been more complete, and there does not remain one Frenchman in Andalusia ; there not being a single individual of the three divisions, which, by their own statements, amounted to more than 20,000 men, that has not been either killed or taken prisoner.—The rejoicing is so general and so lively, than an idea of it canaot be given ; and we expect it will be the same in your lordship's squadron, through the favour which the Spanish nation owes to British generosity.—God save your excellency—(Signed) FRANcisco De SAAved RA. Vico Nte Ho R.E. AN to Nio ZEMBRANo. ANDREs MINAN. JUAN BAPTISTA
Estelle R, Secretary of State.—Palace of
the Real Alcares of Seville, July 22, 1808. —To his Excellency Admiral Collingwood. INTER ceprep Co RR Espox DeNce of GENERAL Du Pont. The following letters form an interesting part of the official reports of Gen. Castanos. They were seized by the Marquis de Coupigny on a courier dispatched by Dupont, and were published by the supreme Junta of Seville. To the Duke de Roligo (late General Savary), general-in-chief of the French armies in Spain. July 15. I have the honour to inform you, that the enemy has advanced in the front of our position, with all his forces, before Andujar, consisting of from 15,000 to 18,000 men, and artillery, consisting in part of 12-pounders. While we were attacked in front, a body of 3000 men, which had passed the river below Andújar, came through the middle of the Sierrain our rear. The 6th provincial regiment was detached to combat them, and succeeded in repulsing them. Another body of from 5000 to 6000 men, which was at Villanuova, threatenes our left flank. Two battalions of the 4th legion were sent to oppose them, and a brisk engagement
ensued ; but the enemy, in spite of his
superiority, could not throw our troops into disorder ; and the adjoining post, by means of which we obtained our provisions, was not insulted. In like manner, the enemy sent a considerable body beyond Menjibar, situated on the road to Jaen, by Baylen. General Liger de Lair covered this position, in order to defend the road to Carolina, and General Bedel passed it the same night with his whole division, in order to reinforce it.
I do not yet possess the necessary details;
but I have reason to believe that Gen. Bedel
will have maintained his post profitably. Gen. Gobert marched this morning to Baylen, in order to support General Bedel. His division is extremely weakened, having been obliged to detach six other battalions, three of which were stationed in the Mancha and the Sierra, for the security of the communication. It is of the utmost importance that this corps reunite itself as soon as possible. The enemy has taken a position upon the heights before Andújar. Every thing announces that to-morrow a new attempt will be made more serious than that of to-day. We shall resist to the utonost. Your excellency knows how difficult this position is, more especially since provisions are to be procured in the day with the greatest difficulty. The soldier is obliged to reap the corn and make the bread at the same time, the peasants having left the harvest to join the rebels. I implore your excellency to send the necessary reinforcements, in order to revime our operations instantly. The interests of his Majesty the Fmperor and the King of Spain demand it; and it is a matter of deep regret to have given the enemy an opportunity to act offensively against us. To-day we have sustained an insignificant loss in repelling the attack of the enemy. General Bedel preserves his position, and the enemy has not yet gained any advantage over us. To the same.—July 16. I have the honour of transmitting to your excellency a diplicate of my letter of yesterday :-The enemy maintains the same position, and occupies the heights in front of Andujar. He has erected his batteries within cannon slot of our tele du pont. We suspect that he will renew his attack this day, and we will receive him with the most firm determination to maintain our position. General Bedel guards the road from Joen to Baylen; and I have charged him to watch that from Jaen to Ubeda ; I have also charged General Gobert to guard the road to Carolina; as of the utmost importance in maintaining our communication with Madrid. The enemy inanifests a regolar plan in his attacks, and our inaction has given him courage. I believe, as I have suggested to your excellency repeatedly, that we ought to lose no time in resuming offensive operations; if not, the fire of irsurrection may spread from the South to the other provinces ; and the regular troops, which are dispersed, may be drawn to take part with the rebels. It is better that we, for the present, take no notice whatever of those partial movements which may arise in some points, in order that we may be able to march with sufficient force against the army of the South, which is in open war against us. Further, I beg your excellency to observe, that it is more than a month since we have occupied Andújar; ... that this country has been ravaged by the banditti, and that we cannot draw from it but the cost scanty means of subsistence. The troops would have had no sustenance, if the soldiers had not been daily employed in reaping the wheat, and made their own bread; but now that they are constantly under arms, they cannot employ those means. Your excellenay will know how impatient the army is to resume their operations, and the moment of doing so can never come too soon. I beg your excellency to assure his majesty of the zeal of his troops in his service. Yesterday they gained somewhat more confidence. All motives concur to induce us to fight instantly a decisive battle, &c. To General Beliard—July 16. I have written to you, my dear general, the result of the affair of yesterday. We remained master of all our positions; but we confidently expect a fresh attack this day on the part of the enemy. This day is the anniversary of the victory of Tolosa, obtained over the Moors; and religious prepossessions confer great importance upon that epoch in the minds of the Spaniards.I have written to the general in chief, that we have not a moment to lose, in order to noit a position where we cannot subsist. The soldie: being under arms all day, cannot reap his corn and make bread as before, for the peasants have left their cottages and their harvests. I implore quick reinforcements ; in a word, a corps of troops in one mass, and not removed from each other at too great distances. I beg you to provide for keeping up the communication, so that the division of Gobert may unite with us. If we suffer the enemy to maintain the field in the South, all the provinces, and the other troops of the line, will hasten to take the part of the rebels. A decisive blow in Andalusia will contribute much to the subjuga, tion of all Spain. Send me medecines, and linen for bandages, with the utmost promptitude, for the enemy intercepted, in the ... mountains, a month ago, all the moving hospitals and the supplies fron Toledo, &c.
the dominion of a single monarch-wes his orders capable of being obeyed and executed along the coasts of every country on the face of the globe, and were his sovereign resolutions exempted from the interruptions of necessity and contingent circumstances, in that case the continental blockade might | be practicable and effective. But that a sogle kingdom (or empire, if you will, though it does not command the western mal time parts of the continent of Europe) shotsi require all the other powers, without any regard to their position, relations, and wants, to deprive themselves of the benefit of com: merce, to forego the necessaries and conve. niences of life, to destroy their superfluors native productions, and to dispense with al the auxiliary advantages afforded by industry and navigation, is an extravagant pretension, impracticable with regard to foreign dominions, unjust and tyrannical at home. It is an established axiom, that maritime ports1 are the sountains of national riches, from which proceed the influx of specie, and o the commodities, both of the first necessity and of luxury. If this entrance to pubs: happiness is shut against the human race, men must confine themselves to the native products of the soil, and, from the want of the precious metals, be reduced to geneo indigence. Without this resource no nation could raise itself to greatness; armies could not be maintained, nor conquests projected and executed ; and hence it was always wisely conceived that that power would command the continent which should pose the dominion of the seas, and carry on 1 flourishing commerce and navigation. Not. withstanding these undoubted truths, France, which for nineteen years has in this respect done nothing but project the most ridiculous, quixotic, and almost impossible enterprizes, ventured to decidre a continental blockade against the English, and that too before she was absolutely mistress of the coasts of Europe. The novelty of the ideasurprised all those cre. dulous beings who admire whatever is new and extravagant; but it occessarily attracted the ridicule of all true politicians, who considered it as an adveđture similar to that
i which the illustrious hero of La Manchi
undertook against the windmills, which he supposed to be the wicked enchauters of his fair Dulciuea. In fact the report of Talley: rand, the approbation of the senate, and the imperial decree of Buonaparté upon th; subject, are conic originals, which would have been very fair game to such men o' Plautus, Martial, &c. Engaged in a hazar. dous contest with Russia, Sweden, all
Were the old and new continents under Prussia—not absolute master of Denmark. - r |
sinces, to decree that the whole continent .
should shut its ports against the English, and sucrifice its interests, commerce, and territory, because such was the sovereign pleasure of Napoleon The decree, however, went forth ; and the exalted imaginations of French visionaries already beheld the industrous Britons expiring under their burdens, and left to the mercy of the waves. What a'ad picture did they give us of their situation Great Britain presented nothing but inactivity, far:line, discontent, and frequent itsurrections; and there were some who trady beheld King George on his knees, imporing peace from the hero of the age, the arbier of the destinies' So great is the influence of falsehood, under the reign pfgnorance But the English, though excommunicated by the bull of Buonaparté, instead of decliniog, continued to advance in riches indstrength, whilst specie was disappearing in France and Spain; and the min of
opulence was compelled to eat the same
breakfast with the porter, for want of sugar,
offee, cocoa, and other colonial commoo: The colonies, both Spanish and
French, were, in consequence of this de
tree, exposed to the manifest hazard of being revolutionized, and proclaiming them*ives independent. Those of his allies, who exist by commerce alone, would have compelled, as the only means of saving
themselves from total ruin, to cast off the
protection and alliance of their lord Napoleon, and his armies would have run the risk of being dissolved and dispersed, in tonsequence of there being no more money to plunder, nor kingdoms to conquer; at the same time that having no maritime sorce to cope with the British, the latter would continue in the exclusive enjoyment of the commerce of the Indies; and the necessity of obtaining the productions and manufactures of Europe would compel the inhabitants of America to open their ports to the }*glish. The project was therefore ridicuhi, and chimelical ; and Buonaparté knew well enough that this was not the way to “prive England of the dominion of the **ś, nor to deliver the ports of the cononent from blockade, and to retaliate in hourn; for England had a force to keep ** a state of blockade, and Buonaparté ad none to prevent it. But he longed to *quer and divide the continent among his
and extravagant course wi.
brothers, and devised this project, to conceal from the French his true intention, and that he was dragging that nation into the field of slaughter, for the purpose of creating kings, after having, in order that they might get rid of kings, sacrificed three nillions of the youth of France ; and thus he disguised the private interest of his own family under the presence of the general interest of the nation. This decree was, therefore, a political prognostic of the premeditated articles of the peace of Tilsit, and the , division of Europe into two empires : Bonaparte taking to himself, for the present, all that part of the continent which extends from the Vistula to Corfu, and is bounded by the Baltic, the Ocean, the Mediterranean, and the Adriatic, leaving the rest to Russia : . so that this project comprehended the conquest of Spain, Portugal, Etruria, the Papal, States, Denmark, and the Hanse Towns, and ultimately Austria, which was the only . thing wanting to complete his work of desolation. All were included in his decree of continental blockade ; and this was a, sweeping expedient, in order to furnish a . decent pretence for the entrance of his armies, whose approach would have been preceded by proclamations, affirming, that they . came only, to compel the common enemy. to keep within his own limits, and to conclude a maritime peace. The French appeared on the stage, and the performance, commenced ; and those who in the first act. performed the parts of friendship and moderation, in the second boldly threw off the mask, and represented the robberies and frauds of their leader and his gang. Tha. English, beyond all comparison wiser and more sagacious than the French, saw, in the execution of the decree of continental blockade, the destruction of the monstrous empire of France, and the recovery of the freedom of Europe and the world. They protected their allies, and left the other powers to be undeceived by experience. All of them are accordingly undeceived, and resolved to shake off the yoke. They open their hearts and their ports to the English, who are
capable of affording them, in the most gene
rous and energetic manner, copious aids of every description ; and on ope, ing the communication, they find that Great Blitain. instead of being sunk into dejection a d poverty, is much more flourishing and opulent than before. They blush for having placed any considence in the French. Complain of their seducive proclamations, and for ever detest and abjure tier fiendship. They acknowledge with shame the ausu, d ich they we.e
nental blockade : they now hold it up to
pursuing, in lending their aid to the conti- sidence, Vienna, June oth, in the year
ridicule, and swear eternal fiendship to
Great Britain. Austria.-Proclamation issued by the Emperor of Austria, for organizing a National Lerde en Musse. Dated Wienna, June 9, 1808. 'We, Francis I, by the Grace of God, Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, Bohemia, Gal}icia, and Lodorneria, &c. &c. Archduke of Austria, &c. &c — We have discovered to our beloved subjects, in our letters patent, of the 12th ult, our design attending the organization of the reserves, namely, the defence of the monarchy, which is to be founded on such means as to afford us the possibility of facilitating the finances of state by a reduction of the regular army. —In this design we have found it good to organize a national levée in masse, tending to defend the country.—We do, for this end, choose a period when we are in friendly relation with all the powers of the Continent—for only then, if such measures are ripely adopted, and cemented by time, can success be expected from them, in case they should become needful.—To execute these measures, we have appointed plenipotentiaries, whose knowledge, zeal, and attachment to our person and the state, have been repeatedly tried, viz. for Austria, Carniola, Carinthia, Stiria, Triest, and Saltsburgh, our aulic commissioner, Count Von Saurau. —For Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia, our serene cousin, his Royal Highness the Archduke Ferdinand, with our Upper Burgrave Von Wallis and Governor Count Lazansky. —For Lower Austria, and Austria on the Ems, our serene cousin, his Royal Highness the Archduke Maximilian, with the President Count Von Bissingen and Baron Von Hackelberg.—For Gallicia, our general of cavalry, Count Von Bellegarde, and the vice president of government, Count Von Wurmser. They have received definitive instruction as to the manner and time of execution, and will take the other requisite measures accordingly.—We expect our booved subjects, who have always shewn in a most laudable manner their unshaken devotion and fidelity towards us, will acknowledge in that regulation the full measure of our paternal designs, and assist to carry them into effect with all their might, as a measure inseparable from their welfare. The activity and prudence displayed in this business shall obtain our special approbation, and recommend them who shall laudably distinguish themselves in this particular.--Given in our capital and place of re
1808, and of our reign, the eighth year.— FRAN.crs.—A loys, Count Von Ugarte, First Chancellor. Joseph, Baron Von der Mark. Joseph CHARLEs, Count of Diedrightein. Joseph, Baron Von Kielmansegge.
Portugal.–Proclamation of the Duke of Alrantes (the French General Junot) Ge. neral in Chief of the Army of Portugal, to the Portugi.ese. Dated, Palace of Lis. bon, June 26, 1808. What phrenzy agitates you? Into what an abyss of calamities are you about to plunge yourselves After seven months of the most perfect tranquility, of the most complete harmony, what cause have you to rush to take up arms—and against whom? Against an army which was to secure your independence, which was to maintain the integrity of your country, and, in a word, without which you would cease to be Por. tuguese. Who can thus urge you on to be. tray your own interests Do you then wish that the ancient Lusitania should henceforth be no more than a province of Spain What can you expect in a contest with an army, numerous, valiant, and inured to war, in whose presence you would be dispersed like the sands of the desert, by the impetuous blasts of the south wind 2 Do you not perceive that those who mislead you, look a to what may further your interests, b solely to the means of gratifying their revenge, and, provided the continent is disturbed, what signifies it to them how much blood may flow Should those perfidious islanders land on your territory, leave me to com them ; this is the duty of my army ; you is to remain peaceably in your fields. I pit your error; but should you persist in it, should you continue deaf to my vo tremble ; your punishment shall be terrible. Can you regret a dynasty which had aban: doned you, and whose government has humiliated you, that you were no longerrank among the nations of Europe? What do you wish for 2 To remain Portuguese ? To be in: dependent? This the great Napoleon has promised you. You, yourselves, have earnes's entreated of him a king, who, aided by the omnipotence of that great monarch, migh; raise up again your unfortunate country, and replace her in the rank which belongs to her. Doubtless, at this moment, your new mo" narch is on the point of visiting you. He expected to find faithful subjects; shall ho find only rebels I expected to have do livered over to him a peaceable kingdom, and flourishing cities. Shall I be obliged to shew him only ruins, and heaps of asho,