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man to deny any one that honourable privilege—honourable I call it, notwithstanding the meed which legal wisdom has prepared for those who exercise it in our enlightened day !—I was present when SIR Richard PHILLIPs, in his court dress, stood uninvited on the Bench, and bore witness against his neighbour, i.e. brother bookseller, and I appeal to every one present whether they ever saw malignity so overshoot itself; but it had its reward...—No one in the pillory (for speaking the truth or any other crime) would I think, since the custom of lending an ear to justice has fallen into disuse, bave changed elevations with him. ... The severe remarks of the chief justice, and the poignant animadversions of the Attorney General, are well remembered by SIR. Richard ; but the cause, which warranted them, has, it seems, wholly escaped-hium.— He uttered no “childish things,” to use his gentle terms With this fact, I beg to couple his assertion, that he never read anonymous criticisms or cared any thing about them, and to add, that before me, at this moment, I have letters written by Sir Richard to a proprietor of a work, in which there is an anonymous review of books, and these letters complain piteously of the censure, which is there passed on some of his publications, and

request - a friendly conference with this

gentleman on the subject. This being the case in one instance, perhaps we may say, “ex who disce”—Latin again! I beg pardon Mr. Cobbett—but one slice is enough— we need not eat the whole of a goose to know that it is not sweet !—The principal

object of my letter yet remains to be stated :

“ You must be teo well acquainted with “ the artifices practised by anonymous

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the report of the late trial between CARR and Hoop, copied from a newspaper into your last Register, was written t the very person whose pamphlet had been the olject of that trial. Hence you may readily account for the inconsistencies of which the plaintiff and his witnesses are by this reporter made guilty 1"—These are the words of Sik Rich ARn Phillips in our last Register. Now, on the honour of a gentleman, and as I value my last hopes, I never reported or inflnenced the report of the †. any newspaper or in any shape whatever ; and as I have at po time been suspected by an Attorney General (not much given to jesting) to have “slipped in my testimony,” I trust that I shall, at least on tissis occasion, have the preference due to my solemn asseveration.—I am, Sir,

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writers, to be surprized at learning, that

&c. &c.—THE AUThor of “My Pocker “Book.”—August 8, 1808.

P. S. As to “the respectable character of Sun John CARR,” domestically speaking, I am as ready to believe it to be such, as SIR Rich ARD is to tell me so ; but I need not inform Mr. Cobbett that, “ quand on parle d'ouvrages d'esprit, il ne s'agit point d'honnètes gens, mais gens de lan “sens.”—A calf may be a very worthy. calf—-aye, and make a very good knight, but I have reason to believe that he would make a very sorry writer of travels, bookseller, or sheriff.

-----------OFFICIAL PAPERS. SPAN1sh Revolutio N.—(Continued from p. 213).—Proclamation, dated Oviedo, July 17. SPAN1Arps l—The tyrant of France temporised with you, to increase the number of his slaves. His ambition, his absuld confidence, increased by the intrigues of a vizier, and by those of a weak and perfidious court, led to the project of the arrest of our august monarch, that he might obtain possession of these dominions; and what tricks and abomi

young prince, and to force him into ignominious slavery ! When he sought to promote the prosperity of his people, and the happiness of his beloved vassals, he met with opprobrium, sacrilegious treachery, the ruin of his subjects, a criminal compact written in characters of blood by parricides and traitors, a thousand enormities of which Nero was incapable, all which were deliberately concerted with a haughty Vandal, who meditated our destruction. Oh atrocious violation of the rights of society Generous Charles | Thou who didst dedicate thy best days, those days which thou owedst to the well-being of thy people, in pursuing the wild beasts of thy forests, tell us, if amongst this savage race, thoujhast found any so ferocious as the horrid monster to whom thou hast thoughtlessly sacrificed an innocent family, and a faithful nation worthy the best affections of their sovereign —By such infernal artifice, Napoleon already reckoned among his treasures the massive gold of Spain and of her Indies; as if it were as easy to vanquish a people, as to seduce kings and to corrupt courtiers. But he is deceived, and most effectually is he cheated by those who are conversant in the arts of deception. He has forgotten that we are both freemen and Spaniards, since the 19th of March, a day of as much exaltation to Spain, as it was of terror and alarm to the black eagles * presumed to fix their talons on the

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nations were not employed to deceive our

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have converted to the desolation of your onemies | Look, oh Spain' down the horible precipice that perfidy has excavated, ind remember the exalled happiness, and he immortal renown your enemies have repared for you.-Yes, Spain, with the tergies of liberty, has to contend with France debilitated by slavery. If she remain firm and constant, Spain will triumph. A whole people is more powerful than distiplined armies. Those who unite to mainlan the independence of their country, must triumph over tyranny. Spain will inevitably conquer in a cause the most just that has ever raised the deadly weapon of war; for she fights not for the concerns of a day, but for the serenity and happiness of ages; not for an insulated privilege, but for all the sights of human nature; not for temporal blessings, but for eternal happiness; not for the benefit of one nation, but for all mankind, and even for France heiself. Spaniards, elevate your natural courage by such sentiments | Let every tyrant ot the earth perish, rather than that you should submit to despotism and to impiety. To impiety Merciful God, let not your faithful people be exposed to such disgrace and infamy!— Spaniards!—Let every honest man arise in defence of his country; let your iron and brass be converted into thunderbolts of war: * all Spain become a camp : let her population become an armed host ; above all, let our youths fly to the detence of the state, for the son should fall before the father apPear in the ranks of battle; and you, tender mothers, affectionate wives, fair maidens, do not retain within your embraces, the sweet objects of your love, until from victory returned, they deserve your affection. They withdraw from your arms not to fight for a tyrant, but for their God, for a monarch worthy the veneration of his people; and not only for these, but for yourselves and or your companions. Instead of regretting their departure, like the Spartan women, *ing the song of jubilee; and when they return conquerors to your arms, then, and

not till then, weave the laurel crown for .

their reception.—The love of religion, of independence, and of glory, those noble Posions, the preservers of great empires, Penetrate into our inmost souls. Let us all wear, by the outrages suffered by our couno, by the victims sacrificed on the 2d of May, by our own swords, bathed in the officidal blood of the ferocious Napoleon, "at we will inflict the punishment decreed of the God of Vengeance.—And you, rich on, rendered selfish, not patriotic, by in*nce, do not continue in ignoble repose,

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gates of our capital. Happy day which you


but exert your means, that peace may be secured. If debilitated by inactivity, you are incapable of enduring the fatigues of war, let your treasures supply the wants of the indigent, and the necessities of the defender of the country. And you, ye venerable orders of religion, do not ye withhold the sums necesary for the support of the common cause! (To be continued.)

Portugal.—Manifesto, or justificatory Erposition of the Conduct of the Court of Portugal, with Respect to France, from the Commencement of the Revolution, to the Time of the Invasion of Portugal, and of the Motives which compelled it to declare War against the Emperor of the French, in Consequence of that Invasion, and the subsequent Declaration of War, made after the Report of the Minister of Foreign Relations. Dated Rio Janeiro, May 1, 1808. The Court of Portugal, after having kept a siletice suitable to the different circumstances in which it was placed, and to the moment when the seat of government was established, conceives that it owes to its dignity and rank among other powers, a faithful and accurate exposition of its conduct, supported by incontestible facts, in order that its subjects, impartial Europe, and also the most distant posterity, may

judge of the purity of its conduct, and the

principles it has adopted, as well to avoid the fruitless effusion of the blood of its people, as because it could not persuade itself that solemn treaties, of which it had fulfilled the burdensome conditions, in favour of France, could become a despicable, an infant's toy, in the eyes of a government, whose immoderate and incommensurable amibition has no limits, and which has but too much opened the eyes of the persons most prejudiced in its favour. It is not in invectives, or in vain and useless mepaces, that the Court of Portugal will raise its voice from the midst of the new empire, which it is about to create ; it is by true and authentic facts, explained with the greatest simplicity and moderation, that it will make known to Europe, and its subjects, all that it has suffered ; that it will excite the attention of those who may still desire not to be the victims of so unbounded an ambition, and who may feel how much the future fate of Portugal, and the restitution of its states. invaded witbout a declaration of war, and in the midst of profound peace, ought to be of consequence to Europe, if Europe ever hopes to see revived the security and inde

' pendence of the powers which formerly composed a species of republic, that balanced itself, and maintained an equilibrium in all its different parts.—An appeal to Providence is the consequence of this exposition, and a religious prince feels all the importance of it, since guilt cannot always remain unpunished; and usurpation and violence enfeeble and consume themselves by the continual efforts they are obliged to employ.—The court of Portugal, though it saw with regret the French revolution begin, and deplored the fate of the virtuous king with whom it was connected by the closest ties of blood, yet did not take any part in the war, which the conduct of the madmen who then reigned (by the confession even of the present government) forced all governments to declare against them ; even when it sent succours to Spain for the defence of the Pyrenees, it always endea. voured to preserve the most perfect neutrality.—In the year 1793, the Frenth government sent an envoy to the court of Portugal, who was received with the no most respect, but who was not acknowledged; for then neither the principles of the law of nations, nor of public law, authorised governments to acknowledge extraordinary challges, unless they are known to be legitimate; and no nation is, in that respect, to judge for another, whilst its independer.ce exists. The French government, without any de

detain the Portuguese merchant vessels; and, after the peace in 1891, demanded and obtained indemnities for those which the court of Portugal detained, to obtain a legitimate compensation, without paying any regard to the claims and remonstrances of the Portuguese merchants. The court of Spain, which had required succours from Portugal, and which, by the confession of the French generals, was obliged to acknowledge how useful and necessary, they had been, when it made peace with France, not enly forgot its ally, which it ought to have caused to be deciated in a state of peace with France, since the court of Portugal, in succouring its ally to fulfil the conditions of the treaty of alliance which existed between the two sovereigns, had no intention to make war against France ; but what is perhaps unheard of, or at least very rare in the annals of history, Spain then made a common cause with France, to force Portugal to receive unjust and humiliating conditions of peace, nor did Spain cease to declare, itself the enemy of its ally, till the moment when the treaties of Badajoz and Madrid were signed, employing even the forces of France to wrest from Portugal a small catent of territory of the province of

Alentejo, on the side of Olivenza ; thus

leaving to posterity an eternal monument of the wretched recompense she bestowed on

an ally, who, notwithstanding the ancient rivalry of the two nations, would not fail to fulfil the conditions, of a treaty of alliance which existed between them.—The treaties of peace of Badajoz and Madrid, in 1 SO1, are likewise a new proof of bad faith in the enemies of the Court of Portugal ; since the treaty of Badajoz having been signed there by Lucien Buonaparté, the French plenipotentiary, and the Prince of Peace, on the one side, and by the Portuguese plenipotentiary on the other, the French government refused to ratify it, and forced Portugal to sign a new treaty at Madrid, with much harder conditions, without being able to assign any other motives than its caprice and ambition. This latter treaty was signed almost at the same time with the treaty of London, between England and France, which moderated some conditions, too oppressive to Portugal, and fixed the limits of a the coast of North America, which was . confirmed by the peace of Amiens, and this

consideration of England for its ancier: ally,

was, in the eyes of France, a new proof of

tle servitude and bondage in which the Eng: . lish government held that of Portugal —Na . sooner was the treaty of 1801 conclude

- - than the court of Portugal hastened to fulfi claration of war, or any formality, began to

all its burdensome conditions; and to shev

by the religious and punctual observation

all its cngagements, how much it desired confirm the good understanding which was re-established between the two governments, and which ought to cause to be forgotten all the injuries it had suffered, and which certainly had never been provoked on its part, The conduct of the French government was very different; as, from the first moment that peace was re-established, it required all kind of unjust sacrifices, on the part of the Portuguese government, in favour of the most extravagant and unfounded pretensions of French subjects. Europe ought then to have foreseen that its subjugation, from Lisbon to Petersburgh, was determined in the cabinet of the Thuilleries, and that it was necessary to combine to level the colossus with the ground, or submit to be his victim. —After a short interval, war broke out anew between England and France ; and the Court of Portugal having made the greatest sacrifices to avoid war, and the harsh and humiliating propositions of the French government, thought itself tortunate to be able to conclude, with the greatest sacrifices of money, the treaty of 1804, in which France promised, in the sixth article, as follows : —

“The First Consul of the French Republic

“ consents to acknowledge the neutrality of “Portugal during the present war, and not “ to oppose any measures that may be taken “with respect to the belligerent nations, “ agreeably to the principles and general “ laws of neutrality."—The French government from that time received all the advantages of such a treaty; it never had occasion to make the smallest complaint against the Portuguese government; yet was it during the same war, and after such a stipula tion, that it required of the court of Portugal, not only the infraction of the neutrality, but the declaration of war, in violation of all the treaties that had existed between the two countries, and in which, in the case of war acknowledged possible, it was determined how the subjects of the two nations should be treated, and all tilis without Portugal having any cause of complaint against the British government, which had even given itevery kind of satisfaction, when the commanders of its ships of war had failed in that respect which was due to a neutral flag—The Emperor of the French, in the meantime, caused one of his squadrons, on board of which was his brother, to put to sea. It anchored in the bay of All-Saints, where it was received with every kind of respect, and was supplied with all sort of refreshment. Yet, what is worthy of attention is, that at the very time the French government received, on the part of that of fortugal, so many marks of friendship and consideration, the squadron burned some Portuguese vessels, to conceal its route, with a promise of indemnity to the proprietors, which promise was never performed. Europe may hence conclude the fate which *waits it, should the French government acquire an ascendency by sea equal to that it his obtained by land, and may properly estimate the foundation of the complaints it so loudly utters against the British government. England never made any remonstrances against the succours granted to the French squadron, for they were within the acknowledged limits of the law of nations. But the minister of foreign relations of France has dared to assert, in the face of Europe, that Portugal gave assistance to the English for the conquest of Monte Video and Buenos Ayres; while it is a fact, known by all the world, that that expedition, which oiled from the Cape of Good Hope, recei*d from Portugal neither vessels, money, not men; nor, in fine, any merchandise "unsoleled as contraband in time of war; *d that the English squadrons, during this War, obtained nothing at Rio de Janeiro, or * other ports of the Brazils, except what **, r*. --- d to any nation, and which had

been supplied plentifully to the French squadron. The court of Portugal defies the court of France to produce any fact in contradiction to this assertion, which is founded in the most exact and impartial truth.France received from Portugal, from 1804 to 1807, all the colonial commoditics and raw materials for her manufactures. The alliance of England and Portugal was useful to France; and in the depression suffered by the arts and industry, in consequence of a perpetual war by land, and a disastrous war by sea, in which he only met with defeats, it was certainly a great advantage to France, that the commerce of Portugal should suffer no interruption ; undoubtedly it was equally useful to both countries. By ravaging Portugal, by subjecting her to excessive contributions, in an unheard-of manner, without war, or any resistance having been made on her part, France has not obtained that advantage, which a commerce, useful to both countries, would have procured to her.—The court of Portugal might then justiy, and with every kind of foundation, flatter itself that that of the Thuilleries would respect a neutrality which it had acknowledged by a solemn treaty, and from which it derived such decided advantages, when it was awaked from its security, in the month of August, 1806, by a formal declaration of the minister of state for foreign relations, M. Talleyrand to Lord Yarmouth, by which the former notified to the latter, that if England did not make a maritime peace, the French government would declare war against Portugal, and order that country to be occupied by 30,000 men. It was not with 39,000 men that the invasion of Portngal could be effected ; but the Emperor of the French, who knew the security in which Portugal found horself, in consequence of the treaty of neutrality, thought he could take her by surprise, and this was sufficient to justifiy his proceedings. The court of England was alarmed by the above declaration, and proposed and offered to that of Portugal ali kind of succour; but France, which at that period had arranged every thing to crush the Prussian court, which then alone bid defiance to the superior power of the Emperor of the French, while a twelvemonth before it would not attack, and perhaps compel him to receive the law, and save Europe, jointly with Russia and Austria, found means to pacify the court of Portugal, which he then chose to spare, and could not conceive that a similar perfidy could be the attribute of a power, whose greatness should keep pace with tha. integrity and those dignified sentiments, which suit so well an exalted rank.-The war which was afterwards continued with Russia, and which might yet perhaps have saved Europe, if the union of the governments which divide it had been as close as it should have been, still retarded the execu. tion of the views of the Emperor of the French with regard to the court of Portu

gal; and it was only by concluding the

peace of Tilsit that the court of the Thuilleries, in a dictatorial tone, such as might have become Charlemagne, addressing the princes whose sovereign lord he was, caused the strange demands to be made to the court of Portugal, through the medium of the French chargé d'affaires, and by the Spanish ambassadors.-1st, To shut up the ports of Portugal against England. 2d, To detain all Englishmen who resided in Portugal; and, 3d, To confiscate all English property; or, in case of refusal, to expose itself to an immediate war with France and Spain, because the French chargé d'affaires, and the ambassador of Spain, had orders to depart on the 1st Sept. about three weeks after the said proposal was made, in case the court of Portugal should not comply with all the pretensions of the two courts. The good faith of the French government is no less remarkable, with regard to the celerity with which, after having made that declaration, and without waiting for the answer of the court of Portugal, it ordered all Portuguese merchant ships to be detained, which were in the ports of France, and by that measure actually began hostilities, without any pre

“vious declaration of war, and thus carried a

far greater length all the proceedings which formed its continued topic of reproach against England; which, after such a con

articles wounded equally his religion and the principles of morality, from which he never deviates ; and which are, perhaps, the true cause of the unshaken fidelity which he has experienced on the part of his subjects. —The court of Portugal then began to adopt measures for securing its retreat to that part of the Portuguese dominions which is not exposed to any invasion, the consequences of which might create alarm. For this purpose, it ordered all such ships of war as were fit to keep the sea, to be fitted out, and also directed all the English to leave its . dominions, and sell their property, with an intention to shut their ports against England, in order thus to avoid an effusion of the blood of its subjects, which would probably have proved useless ; aud to endeavour to comply with the views of the emperor a the French, in case he should not allow himself to be softened down by that justiq with which the court of Portugal assesle, the rights of its independence, along wit those which resulted from the treaty of neu : trality concluded in 1804. The court of tho' Thuilleries, unwilling to agree to any cou o ciliatory measures, and having demanded no only the shutting up of the ports, but also the imprisonment of all British subject the confiscation of their property, and oth * dereliction of the project to retreat to America, his R. H. the Prince Regent to Portugal, who knew on the one side, thi . his Britannic Majesty, his true and old ally informed of all the transactions which wergoing on, would consent to the shutting to of the ports, in order to save Portugal from the invasion of the French, and who was convinced, on the other side, that there wa

duct, will be justly valued.—The court of Portugal might then well have adopted the known maxim of the Romans, and been convinced, that disgraceful conditions frequently saved those who refuse them, and brought destruction upon those by whom they were proposed ; but on the one side it could not believe that the court of the Thuil

no longer any Englishman in Portugal, who was not naturalised in that country, and tha : all English property had been sold, and eve: its amount exported, adopted the resolution

to shut up the ports against England, an: even to comply with the rest of the demand and pretensions of France, declaring, how.

ever, at the same time, that, should the

leries made, in earnest, proposals which

committed both its honours and its dignity ; and, on the other side, it hoped to ward off the storm, desirous of sparing the blood of its people; and placing implicit confidence in the friendship of his Britannic majesty, its old and faithful ally, it endeavoured to render the pretensions of the French government more moderate, by acceding to the shutting up of the ports, and refusing the two other articles, as contrary to the principles of the public law, and to the treaties which subsisted between the two nations; and his royal highness the Prince Regent of Portugal had no hesitation to declare, that those

French troops enter Portugal, his royal highness was firmly resolved to remove the seat of government to Brazil, which formed the most important and best defended part of his dominions. His R. H. then ordered the whole of his army to move to the coast and seaports ; supposing that as France had essentially obtained all she demanded, she had nothing mote to ask ; confiding in that good faith, which ought to be considered as the fundamental principle in every government, which has ceased to be revolutionary : and feeling conscious that having done every thing in his power to secure the tranquillity

of his people and avoid an useless effusional cri

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