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with those meritorious individuals, who have concealed from me nothing which they have thought necessary for your interests.— Blind passions, false rumours, the intrigues of the common enemy of the continent, anxious only to separate the Indies from Spain, have plunged some of you into the most dreadful state of anarchy. My heart bleeds at the view of it; but this evil, howefer considerable it may be, may instantaDeously cease.--Spaniards, only write around my throne. Conduct yourselves so as that internal disturbances shall not deprive me of that time which I wish to employ in labouring for your happiness, nor deprive me of the means of accomplishing that object. I esteem you enough to persuade myself that you will make every exertion to obtain and merit that happiness, which is the dearest object of my wishes. 1, THE RING. (To te continuedy Poponoxi. Papers relative to the Seizure of the Potog/Dominions to Buonaparte. No. 1. Palace of the Quirinal, March 2. The French commander has proceeded to

such an excess of violence and outrage with

in these few last days, that the patience and joignation of his holiness, without being in the least altered, have yet been found to exhost some signs of just indignation. The above commander, on a sudden seized the general post-ofice, with a picquet of soldiers, and displaced the superintendant, to examine

law. He incorporated by violence the troops of the Pope into the French army; he baHished from Rome colonel Bracci, for being fithful to his prince ; and lastly he put guards upon all the printing offices, that he might deprive the head of the church of the liberty of using the press —Each of these attempts would be sufficient to shev what was meant by the note of February 23, which announced that the French army would direct is march to Rome, under the pretext of feeing that city from those whom it chooses to call Neapolitan brigands. Each of these *empts shews what excesses of outrage and irreverence have nuarked the insults offered to the dignity of the visible head of the Church. But the French army has not confined itself within these bounds. In order to crows its atrocities, the French soldiers have dared to lay hands on our cardinals, have agged them from the arms of the holy fa. *r, and conducted them to Rome as state

“iminals.-Violence and abuse of power A

could not certainly be carried farther. His holiness, who has lately seen himself deprived of the attributes of sovereignty, who has seen his power and his dignity insulted under a thousand forms, by an army which ke was still willing to consider as friendly, could not however have believed that it would have proceeded to this extremity, w hich has, above every thing else, struck the deepest to his heart.—The holy father, who, like a lamb, has suffered in silence and with resignation this excess of insult, was roused only by this latter instance. He commanded the undersigned to write once more, and to transmit

to your illustrious highness, in the strongest

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tion.—He renews to your ilustrious highness

the assurance of his sincere consideration. as correspondence, in defiance of the poolic

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G. CARD. DoRIA PAMri L1. – To Signor Lefore, French Chargo a zooires. No. 1 I, dated Moch 3, 1808, is a sharp and spirited rein onstrance against the imprisonment and threatened removal of some officers of his holiness's army, who protested against its incorporation with that of France, and declared that they would not continue to serve under such an arrangement. No. III, dated March 23, 1809, is a copy of a letter writen by order of his holiness, to all the cardinals who were ordered to retire

from Rome. He commands then by their

allegiance not to remove from the capital, except they were compelled thereto, and not to continue their journey longer ban such compulsion existed. Atuong these cardinals we find the name of his holiness's minister cardinal Pamfili, who was succeeded by cardinal Gabrielli No. IV.-March 27, 1808. Cardinal Gabrielli, pro-secretary of state to his holiness, has received positive orders from the holy father in person to inform your illustrious high

ness, that the violence committed against the persons of the cardinals, natives of the kingdom of Naples, never would have been believed, if it had not been repeated against the persons of the cardinals born in the kingdom of Italy, and the countries united to France.—The holy father cannot at present be ignorant, that it is not only intended to deprive him of his temporal authority, but that there is also a design to destroy the spiritual government of the church of Rome, represented by the sacred cellege, which is the senate of the sovereign pontiff-He has

seen with horror and surprise those principles

and maxims which break the most sacred bands by which the cardinals are united to the Pope by all the force of a solemn oath, preceded and followed as they have been, by all the indignities to which the head of the church has only been exposed. Examples of such enormities are only to be found in the time of the republic, when Rome saw the most sacred principles trodden under foot. —If a secular prince, professing the catholic religion, and believing that he has a right too detain in his territories, as his subjects, cardinals of the church of Ronse, finds himself still under the necessity of treating them with that respect due to the eminent character by which they are connected with the holy pontiff, it follows that he has no right to banish them, or to remove them by open force, thus tearing from the chief of the universal church so many of his fellow-labourers.This attempt, which will be a theme of reproach in the present and future age, has particularly wounded the feeling mind of his holiness, as well on account of the unheardof insult which has been offered to the cardinal dignity, as the outrage to his holy person by which it was acompanied ; his vicar and prime minister having no more been respected than the bishops who were torn from their respective dioceses.—The holy father, aware of all the evils which these cruel and violent measures must necessarily cause to the spiritual government of the church, has commanded the undersighed to protest strongly against them, and to require at the same time that the cardinals forcibly carried off against every principle of the rights of nations, be liberated. As to the rest, always resigned to the judgments of God, and confirmed by the innate testimony of a pure conscience, he will patiently support in the cause of justice the hard treatment which he has not merited, and faithful to his sacred duty, after having exhausted all his efforts to allay the tempest which shakes the holy seat, he will leave to heaven the care of protecting and defending it, and to posterity

the right of pronouncing on the justice of his cause.—Such are the sentiments which his holiness has peremptorily commanded the undersigned to express to your illustrious highness, and in performing this duty, he renews, &c. P. CARD IN AI. GABRIELL1. To M. Lefebvre, French Chargé d'Affaires. No. V. is a note written by cardinal Gabrielli to the Pope's treasurer, containing his holiness's order to pay cardinals Saluzzo and Pignatelli, transported to the north of Italy, and whose property at Naples was confiscated, the sum of 1000 crowns each ; provided the treasurer could produce so much, of which his holiness is much in doubt. No. VI—April 7, 180S.–This morning at six o'clock, a French detachment appeared at the gate of his holiness's palace, and the porter on duty having intimated to the offi. cer who commanded it, that he could not permit armcd persons to enter, but that if he was desirous of coming in by himself, he would not prevent him, the latter appeared satisfied. He ordered the troops to halt, and to fall back some paces. The porter then opened the wicket, and allowed the officer to enter. But he was hardly on, the threshold, when he made a signal to the soldiers, who immediately rushed forward. and presented their bayonets to the porter's breast. After having gained admission by such deceit and violence, the soldiers pushed forward to the guard room of the militia of Campidoglio, in the interior of the palace, immediately broke open the doors, and seized the muskets, with which this militia were accustomed to mount guard in one of the antichambers of his holiness.-With equal violence the French troops rushed to the quarters of his holiness's noble guard, and seized the carbines which they made use of when they mounted guard in the apartment next to that of his holiness. A French officer then addressed the captain of the Swiss guards, and told him, as well as the few soldiers there assembled, that from that day, the Swiss guards were to receive their orders from the French general to which they would not consent. The same order was communicated to the commander of the stationary guard, on duty at the barriers, who also refused to acknowledge it, and was in consequence immediately sent to the castle.—In the meantime different French detachments scoured the town, and arrested and carried to the castle all the noble guards, even including their commander.—The holy father, apprised of these horrid outrago overwhelmed by the grief which they ha" produced, has expressly ordered the under

signed to protest strongly against them, and whom he no longer considers as belonging to declare frankly to your illustrious lordship, to him. This reason was, by order of the that each day adds to the measure of the holy father, officially notified to your illustriinsults which are pouring on his sacred per- ous lordship; and to all the diplomatic body, son, and that he is every day more and more by whom, according to the established deprived of his rights as a sovereign.—It was usages, a pattern of the new cockade, was not sufficient for the French army to signa- sent. — After a preliminary declaration, of lite its entrance into Rome by planting can- this frank nature, his holiness never could on against the palace of his holiness, and have conceived that the purity of his intencièring such unworthy violation to his resi- tions would be calumniated by the circuladence, but it has added to this violence, by tion of a report that the new cockade was incing the Swiss guard, and entering with the signal of an union against the French ims into the peaceable abode of the sove- army, as inserted in the order of the day, Egn postiff, rudely bursting open the which was yesterday published and posted dois, and seizing the arms rather intended in every quarter of Rome, as well as in the is the honour than the defence of his sa- provinces.—The holy father is willing to to person, arresting his guards, and, in believe that this order was the consequence foot, depriving him, by these violent mea. of the false representations made to his mao 'sures, not only of his guards, but even his jesty the emperor and king —in fact, if honour.—His holiness requires, in the first the real object which his holiness had in pice, that all individuals of his guard who changing the cockade had been communiHe been in prisoned without any reason, cated to his majesty, had he also been acand contraly to every principle of right, quainted that the French military commanbe liberated; and he afterwards declares der had ordered it to be worn by all the inidemnly, that to all these outrages he only corporated troops, he surely would not have onoses and will oppose patience, and, du- designated it as a signal of union against the ing the time such treatment may continue, French troops, since it was worn by those it meekness of which his beavenly Master very troops who composed part of the sleft him an example. His long impri- French army.—Although the holy father ment, and the injustice which he has ex- is well persuaded that the people of Rome ienced, have made him a spectacle to and the whole world will render justice to world, to angels, and to men.—He his pure and loyal conduct, and that he is dis with resignation, but with an un- also equally certain that no one will adopt: on firmness in his principles, ail that the suspicions, by which the minister of a once can attempt against the head of the God of peace, possessing no malice, is ‘tholic church ; well assured, that any pointed out as conceiving projects of revomiliation be may receive will turn to the lution and blood; nevertheless the horrible ry of religion itself.-Such, precisely, colours in which an act of his majesty, the the sentiments which his holiness com- most innocent possible, is endeavoured to ods me to express to your illustrious lord- be represented, have afflicted him with such p. He renews to your highness the as- poignant grief, that he has ordered the proonces, &c.—P. CARD INAL GABRI E1. Li. secretary of state, Cardinal Gabrielli, to o M. Lefebvre, French Chargé d'Affaires. couplain to your illustrious lordship, and to :

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No. VII.-April 11, 1808.--When his request you, in the name of all that is true, toiness perceived, with no less surprise to acquaint his majesty with the real point. to grief, that his troops were forcibly in- of view in which this change of the cock*porated with the French army, and that ade should be considered.—The holy father, * Punishment was inflicted on such of them always consistent, declares solemnly, that' oremained faithful to their lawful sovereign, the orders of the day, published and posted thought it proper that his guards and the up, are highly injurious to his character, * militia of Campidoglio and of the his dignity, and his, rights as a sovereign ; - s, who were not yet incorporated and that conformable with the right which every Pred under the command of the French prince has, of making their troops wear oral, should wear a new cockade.—The whatever distinguishing marks they think *ct which his holiness had in thus chan- proper, he ordered the new cockade, for : - o: cockade, was to signify publicly the purpose of shewing the world that he . * much he disapproved the violent in- no longer recognised as his the troops who *Poration which took place, and to ma- were incorporated with and placed under . *this firm determination to remain neu. the command of the French; and that * and to be in no ways responsixle for without having committed any crime, and * actions of the incorporated soldiers, only for having discharged their duty in

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obeying their sovereign, the persons who composed his noble guards, and some other officers, have been in prisoned.—To relieve the innocent, the holy father requires and claims their liberation, which he has hitherto demanded to no purpose, and which at present he claims again.—The undersioned having faithfully performed the orders of his holiness, has the opportunity of renewing to your illustrious lordship the assurance, &c. —CARD INAL GABRI toll.--To A1. Lesel wre, French Chargé d'Affaires. No. VIII –Cos y of a Note from his Er cellency M. de Champagne, to his Evcellency Cardinal Cup, tra. *. The undersigned minister for foreign affairs of his majesty the emperor of the French, king of Italy, has laid before his majesty the note of Cardinal Caprara, to wilich he is commanded to return the following answer —The emperor cannot recognize the principle, that the prelates are not the subjects of the sovereign, under whose authority they are born.—As to the second question, the proposal of his majesty is, and from which he will never depart, that all Italy, Rome, Naples, and Milan,


shall enter into an cliensive and defensive

treaty, for the purpose of removing from

the peninsula commotions and hostilities.— .

If the holy father accede to this proposal, every thing is settled. If he refuse it, he announces by such a determination he wishes for no arrangement, no peace with the emperor, and that he is at war with him. The first consequence of war is conquest, and the result of conquest is change of government: for if the emperor is under the necessity of going to war with Rome, is he not also under the necessity of conquering it, of changing the government, cf establishing another which shall make common cause against the common enemy with the kingdom of Naples 2 What other guarantee could he have for the tranquility and security of Italy, if these two kingdoms were separated by a state, in which their enemies would be certain of meeting a cordial reception.—These alterations, become necessary if the holy father persists in his refusal, will take away from him none of his spiritual rights. He will continue bishop of Rome, as his predecessors were during the eight first ages, and under Charlemagne. It will, however, be a subject of grief to his majesty, to see the work of genius, of political wisdom, and of understanding, destroyed by imprudence, obstimacy, and blindness.-At the very

moment that the undersigned received or-.

ders to return this answer to Cardinal Caprara, he received the note of the 30th of March, which his eminence did him the honour of writing to him. This note has two objects in view ; the first to announce the cessation of the powers of the legate of the holy chair, to notify it against the ordinary forms and usages at the eve of holy week, at a time when the court of Rome, if it were still animated by a true evangelical spirit, would feel it its duty to multiply spiritual succours, and to preach, by its example, turion amongst the faithful. But be it as it tuay, the holy father having withdrawn his powers from his eminence, the emperor no longer acknowledges him as legate. The French church resumes the full integrity of its doctrine. Its knowledge, its picty will continue to preserve in France the Catholic religion, which the emperor will always consider it his glory to defend, and cause to be respected —The second object of the note of his excellency Cardinal Caprara, is to demand his possports as ambassador. The undersigned has the l;onour to enclose them. His majesty sees with regret this formal demand of possports, which the practice of modern times regards as a real declaration of war. Rome is then at war with France, and in this state of affairs, his majesty is obliged to issue

the orders which the tranquility of Italy


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dered to transmit to Cardinal Caprara may induce his holiness to accede to the proposal of his majesty. He has the honour to re. new to his excellency the assurances 0 his highest consideration —CHAMPAGNYI’aris, April 3, 1808. Pontuo AL-Proclamation of the Magi" trate representing the People of Oport", termed the Judge of the People. , People of Porto, noble subjects of an inimitable prince, and brave restorers of hiskgitimate rights:--On the 4th inst. (July), yo" elected me (by the votes of the represent" tives of the corporations) representative mo gistrate of the people of this noble and aggo: city. After accusing you of a mispho

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your attention to what I am going to say — You, on the 18th of June, performed a deed, which, when inserted in the history of our country, will, perhaps, stimulate jealousy among the ashes of those heroes who have bled for it; you have performed a miracle, permit me the expression, for to die is but natural, and the act of bringing to resurrection is an attribute of supreme &inity; and the name of our august and *miable prince having been destroyed by the treachery of a tyrant, who substituted his own name, ordering before our eyes the commission of the most sacrilegious and most horrid of all atrocious crimes, I mean the demolition of the sacred painting, which brings to our memory the five fountains which issued on the heights of Mount Col. vary, to cleanse and wash the sins of the world; I mean the five wounds of our Redeemer, offered on the plains of Ourique to or first king, as emblems of honour to be blazoned on the standards; you brought every thing to resurrection on the said day of the 18th, as on this very day loe name of our sovereign appears mounted high over the name of Napoleon, picturing to our imagination a true representation of the archangel St. Michael, and on this same

of, ever memorable, from all parts rise inontaneously the arms of the royal house of

Braganza displaying greater brilliancy than those thousand shields which are suspended from the tower of David But what do I say? A miracle : My thoughts have misled me, the name of our august never died among us; it always retained its life, though saCredly preserved in our bosoms, where our hearts paid and devoted to him the most humble adorations; and if, by an intrusive and treacherous exaction, we rendered any Vissalage to that monster of iniquities, to that man called emperor of the French, it Was the effect only of a refined bypocrisy. Have we not brought to resurrection the army of Braganza, which, although they were "emolished in the edifices, always existed untouched in the image of Jesus Christ, Painted with his most precious blood? Yes; What we have done with the permission of heaven, has been the natural result of the *tuguese bravery and valour solely confin* by the orders given to us by our august on the eve of his départure—not entirely conolous of the perfidy of the tyrant, we know the treachery of Buonaparte, marked under the cloaks of friendship; we know him to *the chief of the numerous banditti spread

over Europe; we know finally that he was an individual, without faith, belief, or religion, and this prompted us to see the opportunity approaching, when we might teach

that villain what is Portuguese valour, inhe

rited from those who subdued great part of the universe, displaying their standards on almost the last barriers of the world ; and this made us on the glorious 18th declare our independence, and, proclaim in loud voices, which reached heaven, the august name of our Don John VI. prince regent of Portugal; it was on this account that I saw ye, loved countrymen, like men converted into wild beasts, running towards the plain of St. Ovid, there to wait for the enemy resembling hungry wolves who run towards lambs. Your hunger is not satiated, your rage increases, and you protest you will feed on the blood of that portion of Frenchmen who infest attgust Lisbon ; finally, nob, dy can repress you ! Ah what heroic traits of wałoor glow in the hearts of the Portonians, and what admirabl, examples of fid lity will they not leave to posterity Continue then, my beloved country men ; let the consumination of the glory of Porto be perfect. But hear me for a while, do not allow that glory to be tarnished or diminished by any action that your overleaping rage may dictate to you without reflection;–borour, let honour be our guide; let us not do any thing which may displease the supreme council which coverns us; reflect that it is composed of men as wise as they are virtuous; and who toil by day and by night to support the brilliancy of our glory: yes, government is the first to lose its life for the country, and who as readily will make every traitor suffer; but ord, r is necessary in every arrangement; let us, therefore, consult government, let us obey their directions. Government represents the prince, and who does not obey it offends the prince : if we act against their orders we destroy our own work; and it will be praising the prince at one time, and offending him at another. See that justice is a part of God, and who offends justice offends God, and then greater evils will befill us than those caused by the tyrant.— I shall not treat you as your judge in the plenitude of authority, but as your friend, and the protector of your welfare; I therefore request you will lay before me all your pretensions, which, if they exceed the limits of my jurisdiction, I shall offer them to the consideration of the supreme government, that it may resolve on your behalf. Let us not be despotic, for we offend heaven, and it endangers the harmony which should

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