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ment , Spezzia. The incorporation of Tuscany is a necessary consequence of that grand pian.—This union is also the interest of Tuscany, which, under the sway of its little princes, was governed without system, without vigour, and was perpetually infested by the Babary powers. Men can no longer be governed in a capricious and fantastic manner. There must be a certain rule, the government of the law, protected by a prince sufficiently great and elevated above the passions of men, and inflexible, as the law is necessary for this purpose. The time indeed is "ssed, in which it was believed that people were made for kings, not kings for people.—Linds, pastures, and forests may become property, but no person gan possess a kingdom as if it were a farm. These disastrous consequences can no longer take place in great states. It is in vain then that objections are made to the great extention of the empire ; the communication oy land, tow that neither Alps nor Appenines oppose it, is as easy from Leghorn to Paris, as from Paris to Nice. It has been the policy of European states to subdue the
most distant countries, in order to obtain
new commercial and inoritime resources ; why then should we neglect those resources and acquisitions which are so valuable to us? The territory of the Medicis, the country of the sciences, and the arts, must form an immediate part of the French empire.— The dukedom of Urbino, Camerino, and the Mark of Ancona, lying on the coast of the Adriatic fall under the influence of Venice and must necessarily be united with the kingdom of Italy. This is also accomplished, and the considerable works in the port of Ancona will afford the opportunity of fitting out their ten sail of the line, to secure the freedom of the Adriatic sea, of which Ancona shall be the harbour, and Venice the naval arsenal. Before the end of this year five sail of the line shall be lying in the roads of Ancona, in that dangerous sea, which to the English presents only hostile shores, and where they will be obliged to maintain six ships of the line, if they attempt to counterbalance our power. No, the war shall not be eternal, in spite of the blind fury which cherishes that inhuman and senseless principle in the cabinet of London. Every where French squadrons are forming, and our naval power in the Scheldt is already considerable. In a few days there will be in the roads of Flushing and Antwerp a fleet of thirty sail of the line, that on the coast of Britinny will be still stronger.—Besides that, we have the allied Russian squadron at Lisbon, where there are already a division of
and sailors in a state of opposition to
and for rendering the naval administration France harmonious throughout all the met
bers of the great confederacy. Without t
incorporation of Tuscany, there can be immediate communication with Naples, a our relations could not be maintained withh.
but through the medium of states subsisti . under other governments, from which might be feared that the guidance and i fluence might be lost which must be on cised towards such states, to place the coa
common enemy.—The following is * -cree of the senate, passed in consequence, this exposition :--Art. 1. The dukedoms Parma and Placentia are united to the Fren empire, under the name of the departm . of the Taro ; they shall form an inseparat indivisible portion of the French territor from the period of the notification of t present senatus consultum.–2. The stal of Tuscany are united to the French emp under the name of the department of t Arno, the department of the Medit ranean, and the departinent of t Ombrona. They shall form an indivisit portion of the French empire, from the p riod of the notification of the present decri —-3. The laws which govern the Fren empire shall, in the departments of the Arno the Mediterranean, and the Ombrona, made public before 1st January, 1809, H period from which the constitutional gover inent for these departments shall take i commencement.—4. The department the Taro, and that of the Arno, shall eat have six deputies in the legislative body, th department of the Mediterranean three, an the department of the Ombronathree ; whic will raise the number of the members of th:
deputies of the departments of the Arno, of the Mediterranean, and of the Ombrona, shall enter the legislative body before the session of 1809, &c.
Austria-Proclamation for arming the Peo ple.—9th June, 1808.
We, Francis I. by the grace of God, Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, Bohemia, Galicia, and Lodomeria, &c. &c. Archduke of Austria, &c. &c.—We have discovered to our beloved subjects, in our letters patent, of the 12th ult, our design attensing the organization of the reserves, namely, the defence of the monarchy, which is to be founded on such means as to afford the possibility of facilitating the finances of state by a reduction of the regular army— In this design we have found it good to or
ganize a national levy-en-masse, tending to
defend the country.—We do, for this end, choose a period when we are in friendly relation with all the powers of the continent— for only then, if such measures are ripely adopted, and cemented by time, can success be expected from them, in case they should become needful. —To execute these measures, we have appointed plenipotentaries, whose knowledge, zeal, and attachment to our person and the state, have been repeatedly tried, viz. –For Austria, Carniola, Carinthia, Stirie, Triest, and Saltsburgh, our aulic commissioner, count Von Sauray. —For Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia, our serene cousin, his royal highness the archduke Ferdinand, with our upper burgrave, Von Wallis and governor count Lazansky.—For lower Austria, and Austria on the Enis, our serene cousin, his royal highness the arch
uke Maximilian, with the president count Von Bissengen and baron Von Hackelberg. —For Galicia, our general of cavalry, count Von Bellegarde, and the vice-president of government, count Von Wurmser. They have received definitive instruction as to the manner and time of execution, and will take the other requisite measures accordingly.— We expect our beloved subjects, who have always shewn in a most laudable manner their unshaken devotion and fidelity towards us, will acknowledge in that regulation the full measure of our paternal designs, and assist to carry them into effect with all their might, as a measure inseparable from their welfare. The activity and prudence displayed in this business shall obtain our special approbation, and recommend them who shall laudably distinguish themselves in this particular.—Given in our capital and place of residence, Vienna. June 9th, in the year
FRAN cis-Aloys, count Wonogarte, first chancellor—Joseph, baron Vonar Mark. —Jos; PH CHARLEs, count of Diedrivatein. —Joseph, baron Von Kielmansegge.
AUSTRIA.—At Vienna the following Proclanation has been affired in the pus lic places ly the order and in the name of his Majesty. His majesty has not heard without the greatest displeasure, that the evil disposed have endeavoured, with all their might, to spread disquieting reports concerning the insecurity of the external peace and apprehension of a new war. These reports are merely the result of an insatiable spirit of gambling. His majesty is in the most amicable relations with all the powers of Europe; but he will not suffer the public peace to be interrupted, without punishment, by the avarice of a few persons. and has, in consequence, ordered that search should be made for the authors and disseminators of such false reports; having sufficient confidence in the body of merchants, to trust that they will inform a special commission, which has been established for that special purpose, all they are acquainted with concerning the circulators of the current reports and the artifices they employ.—Commissioners were appointed by the government, who were to watch daily in the exchange, against the stock-jobbers, and the spreaders of false reports.
Portugu F3 E REvor. UTIo N.—Edict and Proclamation, issued at Oporto, 20th June, 1808. o In the name of the Prince Regent of Portugal, the junta of the supreme government of the city of Oporto makes known unto all the subjects of the said pris.ce, that the French government is entirely exterminated from this country, and the royal au. thority of our legitimate sovereign is restored, which will be exercised fully and independently by the above-mentioned junta, until the government established in this kingdom, by his royal highness shall be restored; in consequence of which the said junta order that his royal highness shall be proclaimed, and his royal arms be displayed and respected as they always have been, and shall be ; and that all constituted authorities shall act conformably, publishing all their orders in the name of his rôyal highness. – The Bishop, President, and Generalissimo, given at Oporto, 19th June, 1808. Edict. The provisional council of the government of Oporto, invites the veteran soldiers, vince that is, to enter oto the ranks with the two regiments of the garrison of this city, which are in the course of organization: and to each man, by way of remuneration, are promised a month's pay, and a daily allowance of four vinteins, with clothing, &c. This same pay will be allotted to all the soldiers now on service, as well as those who will join the same regiments, as far as circumstances will permit this extraordinary pay. Likewise the militia will have the same advantages.—The Bishop, President and Governor PRO cla MATION.
130s, and of our reign, the eighth year— to whatever regiment of the line they may knowledge of whore you are, where your which in all ages has covered them with The most moment
Portuguese !—By Heaven, and by Jesus Christ!—You have a governor who loves you, who is anxious for your happiness, and who will exert himself to obtain it. What avail your turbulence, your excesses, your want of that order and subordination to which he would conduct you, anxious to preserve your lives What opportunities have you not lost, of which you ought to have availed yourselves against the enemy, since you have neglected your own resources? What signals do you not exhibit to the enemy, that he may entrap and surprise you !— Portuguese ! Listen to one who loves you. The French intend to strike a blow, fatal to
you, and you are lost if you are guilty of
insubordination, or disregard the councils of your governor. Your firing, your beat of drum, your bells, give to your enemies the
force, and where your weakness. From your
enemy conceal your power, that you may
strike the Biow with the thore success; and that you may encounter him when he least expects your approach. By these means you may conquer him. Subject yourselves to your superiors in all and through all, if you are desirous of victory; otherwise, be assured you will meet only disgrace. Froin necessity, after this manner, the mighty ball yields to vigilance, dexterity, and the little cloak. By whatever is sacred in heaven, or in earth, by the sacred name of Jesus Christ, the governor implores you, that you maintain subjection to your chiefs, conforming to the regulations of your respective conpanies. If you are ordered to a post, there you ought to remain until the toolinent of combat and glory shall arrive. To you who are in the van we first commit our cause, and by valour diminish the number of our enemies. You who are next in order, when your turn conies, sulfil your duty by dealing destruction around you : and you who form the rearguaid, destroy the rest. Your energy must be guided by intelligence; you must be con
belong, to ur-e with the army of this pro
ducted by w is on, in order to be conquerors.--Long live ille Prince Regent; long live Polttogal , long ilve the Portuguese! —I lie Bisitor, Gover to and President. SPAx is a REvo Lurios.--(Cootiuod from p. 90) –Picciamation of the S.p. one Junta at Seville, 29th May, 80s. Seville could not resist the impose of her heroic loyalty, of which she has set the example in all ages. The king, to whom we all swore allegiance with emotions of joy, unprecedented in history, has been decoyed from us. The fundamental laws of our monarchy are trampied under foot ; our property, our customs, our wives—all which the nation holds most dear, is threatened with imminent danger. Our holy religion, our only hope, is doomed to perdition, or will be reduced to mere external appearances without support at 4 without protection. Atid all this is done by a foreign power, not by dint of arms, but by deceit and treachery, by taking advantage of on good naturie, and by converting the very persons who call them. seives the heads of our government, into instruments of those atrocious ac's ; persons, who, either from the baseness of their sentiments, from shameful fear, or perhaps from other inotives, which time or justice will unfold, hesitate not to sacrifice their country. It therefore became necessary to break the shackles, which prevented the Spanish people from displaying that generous ardour
glory ; that noble courage, with which they
have always defended the honour of the nation, their laws, their nonarchs, and their religion.—The people of Seville joined accordingly the 27th May ; and, threugh the medium of all their magistrates, of all their constituted authorities, perfectly united, and of the most respectable individuals of every rank and description This supreme council of government was formed, invested with all necessary powers, and charged to def ind the country, the religion, the laws and the king. We accept the heroic trust; we swear to disciarge it, and reckon on the strength and energy of the whole nation. We have again proclaimed Don Ferdinated VII. our king ; again we swore allegiance to him, swore to die in his defence—and this was the signal of happiness and union, and will prove so to all Spain —A council of government had scarce been formed, when it violated the most sacred laws of the realm. A president appointed without any authority whatever, and who, had he had any lawful title, hastened to forfeit it. In adultion to his being a foreigner, which was a legal chjection to his promotion, he acted with the utmost duplicity, and co-operated for the destruction of the very monarchy, from whom he received his appointment, and of the laws which alone could sanction his authority. Under these circuit, stances we could not restrain our loy...lty, aud in ch less could we violate th: socied engage, no ot-, wi.ch we had before contracted, as Spain aids, as subjects, as chlorious, as treeinen, it, ependent from all on eign authoroy ind p , wer.—Nor could the authority of to first tribunal of the nation, the council to Castle, clock or controui our exotions. The weakness of that council became obvicos rrosu toe wavering and contradictory proceedings it adopted.
nation ever hath been placed, and in which the council should have displayed that heroic ormuess with which numberless motives and its own honour compelled it to act. The order tamely to submit to, and circulate, and obey the act of abdication in favour of a foreign prince, was the consummation of its weakness, perhaps of its infamy, for tuat act was evidently void and illegal from want of authority in him who made it, because the monarcity was not his own, nor wis Spain composed of animals subject to the absolute controul of their rulers; his occession to the throne was founded on his roval descent, according to his own confesston, and on the fundamental laws of the rolin, which invariably regulate the hereditry succession, and with regard to which the council is not invested with any other power, than the sacred duty to enforce their observauce. It is void on account of the state of violence and oppression in which it was mode, and which is far more evident than the abdication itself; it is void, because the published Act of Abdication of King Ferdinand VII. and of his uncle and brother, was made in the same state of violence and compulsion, as it expressly declared, in the very Act of Abdication; it is void, because many royal personages, possessed of the robi to claim the crowa, have not relinquished that claim, but preserve it entire. Add to this the horrid treachery which has been employed to sacrifice and degrade the *Panish nation. It is to our alliance, and our sacrifices, that the French are indebted of what they call their triumphs: France withdrew our gallant troops from their native land, and sent them to the most distant countries; she made them fight for her in
o's and most critical situation in which the . love and defence of its king. The latter
terests, witho it having any occasion fo them, for the obvious purpose of weakening us, and despong us of our stren...th. Her armies afterwards entered Spain, under continual professions of an anxious desire to promote our prosperity, and under the pretext of co-operating in expeditions against an eneury, of who on no far nor mention is The people, by a generous effort, prevented the departure of their king, a measure which the French should have hailed with shouts of joy ; out far from so doing, they kept a profound silence with rega; d to that departure, and what is still more, converted it into a motive to oppress, us., France affected to perceive divisions in the nation which did not exist; the Spanish nation having never been more united in the
was decoyed into the French territory by
deceitful insinuations and professions; with a degree of generosity, of which perhaps there does not exist a precedent, the king. with implicit reliance on those vain professions, threw himself into the arms of the French, who with the basest treachery, unprecedented in the annals of civilized nations, made him their prisoner, treated him in a manner the most disrespectful, and forced him to the deeds of horror, which all Europe has witnessed with astonishment, and every Spaniard with indignation and the most poignant grief. In a manner equally deceitful they invited the royal parents to their country, and compelled them to unjust and illegal acts; acts which must hand down their memory to the latest posterity branded with disgrace; they also dragged away the rest of the royal personages, to whom their tender age would have proved an inviolable. shield, even among the most barborous nations—The French ruler summoned the Spanish nation before him ; he chose such deputies as best suited his purpose; in a
despotic manner of election of other depu
--Supplement to No. 4,
rol. Air-Price lod.
self to a degree of disloyalty and meanness, which could induce him to a rebellion so atrocious, that even slaves would scorn to disgrace themselves by deeds of infamy like this.-He has resorted to many other indecorous means to deceive us. He has distributed seditious libels to corrupt the public opinion, in which under the strongest professions of respect for the laws, and for religion, he insults both, leaves no means untried, however infamous they may be, to bend our necks under an iron yoke, and make us his slaves. He carries his audacity and deceit the length of assuring the public, in one of his libellous publications, that the supreme pontiff and vicar of Jesus Christ, approves and sanctions his proceedings, while it is notorious, that in sight of all Europe he has despoiled him of his dominions, and forced him to dismiss his cardinals, in order to prevent him from directing and governing the whole church, in the manner sanctioned by our godly Saviour Jesus Christ.—Spaniards, every consideration calls on us to unite and frustrate views so atrocious. No revolution exists in Spain; or did we declare
against any power; our sole object is, to
defend what we hold most sacred, against him, who, under the cloak of alliance and friendship, intended to wrest it from us, and who, we have reason to fear, will despoil us, without fighting, of our laws, our monarchs, and our religion. Let us, therefore, sacrifice every thing to a cause so just, and if we arc to lose our all, let us lose it fighting, and as generous men.—Join me, therefore, all ; the people are ready to take up arms; let us commit to the wisest among us in all the provinces of Spain, the important trust to preserve the public opinion, and refute those insolent libels replete with the most atrocious falsehoods. Let every one combat in his way; and let even the church of Spain incessantly implore the assistance of the God of Hosts, whose protection is secured to us by the evident justice of our cause.--And what do you fear 2 There is not in Spain the number of the enemy's troops which they proclaim, in order to intimidate us. Those who occupy part of our country are composed of different nations, dragged into service, and who anxiously desire to break their chains. The positions they have taken are exactly those in which they can be conquered and defeated in the easiest manner. They are besides weak and dismayed, because the consciousness of guilt makes a
ceward of the §o. Europe
will applaud our efforts, and hasten to olf assistance. Italy, Germany, and the whole north, which suffer under the despotism of the French nation, will eagerly avail themselves of the favourable opportunity held out to them by Spain, to shake off their yoke and recover their liberty, their laws, their monarchs, and all they have been robbed of by that nation France herself will hasten to erase the stain of infamy which must cover the tools and instruments of deeds most treacherous and heinous. She will not shed her blood in so vile a cause. She has already suffered too much under the idle pretext of a peace and happiness, which never came, and can never be attained but under the empire of reason, peace, religion, and laws, and in a sate where the rights of other nations are respected and observed.— Spaniards, your native country, your property, your laws, your liberty, your kings, your religion, nay, your hopes in a better world, which that religion can alone devise to you and your descendants, are at stake, exposed to great and imminent danger.—By command of the supreme council of government, — Do N Ju AN BAutista Estelle R, First Secretary.—Don Juan Pando, Seeond Secretary, Proclamation of Gen. MoRLA, Cadiz, May 30, 1808. People of Spain, loyal countrymen, whither does your blind enthusiasm, arising from your fervent love for our august and beloved sovereign Ferdinand VII. (for whom we are to die) hurry you along 2 Are ye not aware that the excesses you commit, hurl us to a precipice, and cause the ruin of the state. Would you be so much misled by prejudice as not to know, that disorganization is the principal cause of the down: fal and destruction of the most powerful nation ? And convinced of that truth. why do you not hasten to submit to the orders of a government, which has no more earnest wish than to die for our sovereign, who is torn from us by the usurpation of a tyrant The advantages arising from such a line of conduct will be truly great, because, being organized as militia or veteran troops, the same number of men who pant for the welfare of the nation, will form a body of troops able to march in any direction, which circumstances shall require, and how great will be your satisfaction when you shall see the tranquility and peace of this town restored.—Hitherto you have acted with inconsiderate precipitance, and done nqthing, and under the cloak of your patriotism rogues and ruffians rob and destroy; a thing which cannot but deserve the detestation of