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arrive, I shall therefore endeavor to occupy only the more populous and wealthy States.

Most of the mints (all but two, I learn) have been farmed by foreigners for terms of years, (unexpired, on the payment of large sums, in advance. The principal mint (here) is in the hands of the British consul general, who paid down about $200,000, in February last, for the term of ten years, and contracted to pay, currently, one per centum on the amount of coinage. I suppose myself bound to respect such contracts until otherwise instructed. Other mints pay, I am informed, one and a half per centum on the money turned out. Hence a direction in general orders, No. 395, to examine the contracts between the Mexican government and the several mints. Those not under contract will be assessed as heretofore.

By two conveyances I am expecting mails up, from Vera Cruz, in two and four days. I am anxious to receive the views of the department on several points of importance to me in this command.

The new federal executive and congress are, as yet, not installed. Both, it is believed, will be strongly inclined to a peace.

I have the honor to remain, sir, with high respect, your most obedient servant,


[Supplemental to general orders, No. 376.] : GENERAL ORDERS,

No. 395.

Mexico, December 31, 1847. 1. To support, in part, the miltary occupation of the republic of Mexico by the army of the United States, ihe several States of this republic already occupied, and others as they shall become occupied, are or will be assessed, by the year, in dollars, as follows: Chihuahua

$49,188 Coahuila

5,557 Chiapas

21,692 Duranga.

85,556 Guanajuato

255,576 Jalisco.

236,338 Mexico, State and Federal district....

668,332 Michoacan...

287,712 Nuevo Leon

50,437 Oaxaca..

84,160 Puebla.

424,276 Queretaro

85,944 San Luis....

111,260 Sinaloa..

33,524 Sonora

5,000 Tabasco :.

59,060 Tamaulipas

71,332 Vera Cruz ...

271,548 Zacatecas and Aguascalientes, reunited..


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2. This assessment is the quadruple of the direct taxes paid by the several States to their federal government, in the year 1843 or 1844. But, on the other band, all transit duties, (alcabalas y dere. chot de internacion) heretofore payable at the gates of cities, and on passing the lines between States, have been abolished, together with national lotteries. The tobacco monopoly will also be abolished from and after the present year. The cultivation and the sale of that plant shall, thereafter, be free; save any duty that the United States may have imposed, or 'shall hereafter impose, on the importation of tobacco through custom-houses at Mexican ports occupied by this army. And the receipts of the post offices together with the playing card and stamped paper monopolies, are relinquished to the State governments respectively.

3. The governors and the members of legislatures in the different States, and all collecting officers, now in commission, and heretofore charged with the collection of the federal dues of any kind, will be individually held responsible in their persons and property for the collection and full payment of this assessment; one-twelító monthly, at the usual State capitals respectively, or other place or places, within the same, as may be appointed by the United States commander within each' State.

4. The assessment on each State that may hereafter be occupied as above, shall be considered as due from the first day of the month within which the occupation may take place, in order to avoid all calculations founded on days less than a month. Hence no credit will be allowed a State for any payment previously made to the federal government, or its officers, for any part of a month within which the State shall have been occupied by the American forces. In the States already so occupied, the assessments will be considered as having commenced with the present month, and be demanded accordingly.

5. In payment of the money assessment, any State may substitute, in whole or in part, at a fair valuation, with the consent of the United States commanding officer therein, such articles of subsistence and forage as may be found convenient to the two parties.

6. On the failure of any State to pay its assessments, its functionaries, as above, will be seized and imprisoned, and their property seized, registered,, reported, and converted to the use of occupation, in strict accordance to the general regulations of this army. No resignation or abdication of office by any of the said Mexican functionaries shall excuse one of them from any of the above obligations or penalties.

7. If the foregoing measures should fail to enforce the regular payment, as above, from any State, the commanding officer of the United States forces within the same will immediately proceed to collect, in money or in kind, from the wealthier inhabitants other than neutral friends, within his reach, the amount of the assessment due from the State; taking care, always, to make the collection as equitable . and savingly as practicable, and to report the amount forcibly levied to the next superior officer of this army. Any waste or wanton injury committed in these operations, as well as

all fraud and corruption, shall be rigorously prosecuted before a tribunal of the army.

8. With a view to a rigorous accountability, receipts in payment of assessments, whether in money or in kind, (the latter expressed in money, according to valuation,) will be signed by some quartermaster, commissary, or paymaster of this army, named by the commanding officer within a State, and be duly attested by the latter, who will also keep a rigister of all such payments. The amount of those payments and of forced levies will be reported monthly to general head-quarters, as well as to Washington, (see general orders, No. 366, of the 6th instant,) both by the receivers and the attesting commander or commanding officers within the several States.

9. The usual dates, heretofore levied on the precious metals in the interior, by the federal government of Mexico, will be continued and collected for the military chest of the army. Commanding officers near the mines, assay offices and mints, respectively, will inquire, and report to general head-quarters on the subject; but until further orders the following rates will be exacted:

10. On production of both gold and silver, three per centum; on melting, iwo dollars and fifty cents for every one hundred and thirty-five marks, the mark of eight ounces; on assaying, one dollar the bar, for bars of silver, or one dollar and fifty cents each for bars of gold, or of gold and silver mixed, and on coinage the per centage on both metals heretofore paid by the mints, respectively, according to contract with the Mexican government. Those contracts, in every case, will be particularly examined. The one real per mark, on both gold and silver, heretofore paid to the College of Mines, in this city, is relinquished to that scientific institution, and may be collected as usual.

in. It is understood that the collection of the dues on production, melting, and assaying, may be made at the assay offices, and they will be demanded and received accordingly. The per centage, on coinage, will be collected for this army at the mints. At both places, officers, of intelligence and accurate habits, of inspection will be appointed, from time to time, to give the necessary attendance.

12. The like penalties, receipts, attestations, registeries and reports are prescribed in respect to dues on the precious metals, as are prescribed, above, for other contributions, in money or in kind; and the former will commence also at the same periods, and under like circumstances; that is, in the Mexican States already occupied by the American forces from the first instant, and in the other States from the beginning of the months within which the States shall, respectively, be entered and occupied.

13. The American troops, in spreading themselves over this republic, will take care to observe the strictest discipline and morals in respect to the persons and property of the country; purchasing and paying for all necessaries and comforts they may require, and treating the unoffending in habitants with forbearance and kindness. The higher honor of our country, as well as the particular honor of this army, must and shall be maintained against the few miscreants in our ranks. The few cannot be permitted to dishonor the whole mass of our citizens and soldiers at home and abroad. The miscreants must therefore be watched, and for every offence denounced, and sent before the proper tribunals for exemplary punishment. This is required of every good officer and soldier. Men free at home, must maintain the honor of freeman when abroad. If they forget that, they will degrade themselves to the level of felons and slaves, and may be rightfully condemed and treated as such; for felons, according to the laws of God and man, are slaves.

14. The laws of war will also be strictly observed towards all Mexicans in arms, who respect those laws. For the treatment of those atrocious bands of guerrilleros and armed rancheros, see general orders, No. 372, dated the 12th instant. By command of Major General Scott.


A. A. A. G.




Mexico, January 9, 1848. 1. To prevent fraud in the payment of the dues on the precious metals, as assessed in general orders, No. 395, paragraph 10, of the 31st ultimo, it is further directed:

2. Bars of silver or gold, produced in the mineral districts, to which the assay office of the capital is nearest, will be sent to that office, with a permit, setting forth the number, kind, and approximate value of the bars, signed by the commanding officer of the United States forces nearest to the place of production; which permit will be returned to the agent of the mine, with an attestation that the dues on production, suelting, and assaying, have been duly paid to the assayer on account of this army.

3. The bars, having been assayed, will be sent from the assay office to the nearest mint for coinage, and the payment of the dues on that operation; as also to enforce existing orders against the exportation of the precious metals, except in coins.

4. A book will be kept in every assay office, in which will be duly entered the number, weight, and standard of the bars. Each entry will be signed by the assayer and the superintendent of the mint,

5. The dues on production, melting, and assaying, will be col. lected at the assay office, and immediately paid over to the American officer who may be appointed to receive them, who will allow the assayer to deduct therefrom any portion of his usual salary that may be due at the time of the assay; the salary to be considered as having commenced with the assessment on account of this army, and without regard to arrearages of a prior date.

6. Any attempt to evade the payment of dues on the precious metals, or to evade the orders relative thereto, shall be punished by seizure and confiscation of the metal, whether in bars or coins; and

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owners and agents, when about to send bars to an assay office, shall give notice to the American governor, or commander of the place, so that the latter may send the proper officer to receive the dues on

the spot.

7. Escorts of American troops, when needed and practicable, will be granted to the precious metals in passing from the mines to the assay offices, and from the latter to the mints.

8. Notwithstanding the precise orders on the subject, there is reason to apprehend that the smuggling of the precious metals in bars and in coinss out of this couòtry, may be attempted. On receiving satisfactory evidence of success in such attempts, it is hereby decreed that the owners and shippers shall be compelled to pay into the military chest of the occupation, the full value of the said metals shipped against orders. By command of Major General Scott:

A. A. A. General.


No. 43.

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Mexico, January 13, 1848. Sir: I have not had a line from any public office at Washington of a date later than October 26. The spy company has returned from Vera Cruz; but it seems that despatches for me had been intrusted to a special messenger, (I suppose from Washington,) who, after a delay of many days at Perote, came up with the company to Puebla, where he again stopped and retained all my letters.

Brigadier General Cadwalader has quietly occupied Toluca and Lerma. As was known, the State government had retired (thirteen leagues) to Sultepec. The general has invited that government to provide for the payment of the assessment upon the State; but there has not been yet time to receive a reply.

Some days since, Colonel Wynkoop, of the 1st Pennsylvania volunteers, tendered his services to go, with a few men, to seize the guerrilla priest, Jarauta, at the head of a small band' that has long been the terror of all peaceable Mexicans within his reach, and who has frequently had skirmishes with our detachments. The colonel having missed that object, heard that General Valencia and staff were at a distant hacienda, and by hard riding in the night, succeeded in capturing that general and a colonel of his staff. I consider this handsome service worthy of being recorded.

Colonel Hays, with a detachment of Texan rangers, returned last night from a distant expedition in search of the robber priest. In a skirmish, without loss on his part, he killed some eight of Jarau

and thinks that the priest was carried off among the many wounded.

The spy company, coming up from Vera Cruz, had also'a very

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