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were, as it was against their laws; that we must instantly remove to a short distance, and that then we should be gratuitously supplied with all we required. To this I replied, as I had previously done, that it was contrary to English customs for merchant ships to receive gratuitous supplies, and that it would lower their character if they consented to be treated like paupers; that all I wished was the liberty to purchase such supplies as we required; and that such a permission could not be refused by any nation which styled themselves our friends. The tetuh was evidently inclined to concede to our request, and to be as polite as Chinese assumption of national superiority would permit. The tung-ping, who is a Canton man, however, repeatedly interfered, and throughout the whole discussion manifested the most decided spirit of hostility towards us. A conversation ensued between himself and Mr. Gutzlaff in the Fokien dialect, in which he roundly declared that our plea of wanting provisions was merely a pretence to veil some sinister purposes; but Mr. Gutzlaff was not the person to be brow-beat by angry words; and he replied to his accusations with so much tact and spirit, that we had the satisfaction to see bis opponent completely foiled in his arguments. On this the tung-ping, who was a very violent-tempered man, lost all command of himself, and the tetuh several times interfered to moderate his anger, which appeared to be greatly increased by seeing that the bystanders evidently enjoyed his discomfiture, and were much amused by some of the apt remarks made by Mr. Gutzlaff.” -pp. 23-25.

In this conference the Chinese saw that the determination of the strangers was to refuse any gratuitous assistance, and ultimately yielded to the demands of the party, to furnish all that might be required at a moderate valuation. Mr. Lindsay, after thanking the tetuh, invited him to the Amherst, but his excellency declined the invitation, when Paou Tajin again interfered, and said, " I view your ship and yourselves with equal contempt and anger:” and then turning to Mr. Gutzlaff, he said, “I know you to be a native of this district traitorously serving barbarians in disguise.” This was the highest compliment to Mr. Gutzlaff's excellence of knowledge of the Chinese that could possibly be paid to him.

Now, the result of this affair with the town of Amoy, taught the party of visitors a lesson of no inconsiderable practical value; for, they saw at once that the Chinese complied with many of their terms, thereby giving up the question of the immutability of their laws; and that, therefore, had the visitors presumed farther on the pliancy of the Chinese, they might have been completely successful. Mr. Lindsay determined to try how far he could proceed on the principle to which this experience led; and we find, that, during his subsequent intercourse with these people, he proved that he had made a very just estimate of their character when he began to deal with them on the terms of unlimited resistance to such demands as he did not think it right to grant. The party remained six days in Amoy, during which they made long rambles about the country in every direction: they were attended by a

party of soldiers and mandarins, who were uniformly polite, and always pretended that their only object in accompanying the party, was, fear least the unruly populace should do them injury. But they must have well known that such a step was wholly unnecessary, as the strangers were perfectly satisfied to trust themselves even unarmed to the populace. From the experience which he now derived from his intercourse with the natives, he entertained the strongest hopes that nothing more was required to open an intimate communication between Europe, or at least England, and China, than an emancipation of the Chinese mind from the strange prejudices with which it seemed to be altogether filled against all nations save its own. Some attempts have been already made by some excellent individuals in India to enlighten the inhabitants of China upon this subject; and a small tract in their language has been sought to be circulated amongst those on the coasts by travellers who have been able to communicate with them. This tract on English character is from the pen of Mr. Marjoribanks; and it contains an account of England, its power and magnitude, mentions in the most respectful terms the government and emperor of China, and appeals to the best and most philanthropic feelings of man as a reason for mutual good will to subsist between the two countries. But it is obvious that an engine like this can have but little success for a long time, and we may yet calculate that a very considerable period must elapse before the notion that we are a 6 red-bristled nation," will be eradicated from the minds of the Chinese,

Proceeding in their course from Amoy, round the northern coast of China, they were obliged, by stress of weather, to anchor off an island called Keetan, where they had an interview of a singular nature with a mandarin, who was the government admiral of the district. His Chinese name was Tsung-ping.

* This mandarin, whose name is Wan Tajin, is a native of Keung-shan, and had lived some time in the neighbourhood of Macao, where he had frequent opportunities of seeing foreigners. He was received on board the Amherst with the respect due to his rank; a salute of three guns was fired, and every attention paid to him; but it appears that the ideas he had there acquired of foreign character did not lead him to imagine that much courtesy was requisite towards us. He began the conversation by abruptly asking various questions, hardly giving me time to reply: “Where do you come from? What is your nation? What business have you here? You must be gone instantly,” &c. &c. I had just commenced a reply, when his Excellency turned sharply to Mr. Gutzlaff, and said, “ You are a Chinaman;" Mr. Gutzlaff denying it, he told him to take off his cap, that he might see if he wore a tail; which being done, he said, “No, I see you are a Portuguese." I now told him that the ship was English, which assertion he treated with perfect discredit, saying, “ I have lived at Macao, and know the barbarian customs; your ship is from Macao." I again replied that it was strange in his Excellency to accuse me of falsehood in this manner, and that both myself and the ship positively

excuse me.

were English, in spite of all that he had known and learned at Macao. I then took a pencil and wrote on a slip of paper, “Ta-ying-Kwo (Great Britain) is my nation," and placed it in his hands. On receiving it he burst into the most scornful laugh, and exclaimed, “Nonsense! the great English nation! the petty English nation you should say! You tell lies to me." Up to this moment I had kept my temper perfectly, and answered all his insulting remarks with civility; but I confess that the grossness of this last speech completely overcame the natural placidity of my disposition. I snatched the paper, which he was still laughing at, out of his hands, and seizing hold of the admiral's

arm, I said, “As


have come to my ship merely to insult my nation (the Ta-ying-Kwo) and myself, I insist on your instantly quitting it;" and, suiting the action to my words, I was on the point of handing him out of the cabin. His Excellency now saw that he had carried the matter too far, and commenced apologizing.

Pray excuse me; I did not mean to offend; you know well there is the Ta-se yang and the Leaon-se-yang (the one is generally applied to Portugal, the other to Goa,) I thought there also was the Ta-ying-Kwo and the Leaon-ying-Kwo; I acknowledge my offence, and again beg you will

This ingenious apology was accompanied with a profusion of bows, and behaviour as cringing as it had before been insolent. He staid on board a considerable time, but his manners and conduct were so singular as to raise a suspicion that his judgment was not quite sound, which was corroborated by some of his officers who accompanied him, and who expressed much regret at the indecorous behaviour of their commander. I certainly, on no other occasion, witnessed such grossness of conduct and vulgarity of manner as was exhibited by Admiral Wan; for, the demeanour of Chinese mandarins in public is generally distinguished by a considerable degree of dignity and decorum.'-pp. 36-38.

Remaining here for some days, the party established with the natives, who were first shy and reserved, a communication, which was particularly satisfactory to them, because they constituted the first Europeans on whom this people had laid their eyes. The party next entered a river which led to Fuh-chow-foo, the capital where the governor-general of the provinces of Fokien and Che Keang resided. Mr. Lindsay drew up a petition to this authority, in which he stated that an English ship had arrived with a cargo, the chief articles of which he enumerated; and, having expressed his willingness to sell these to the people, he proposed to take either money or tea in barter, the latter, he heard, being of excellent quality in the district. The petition was finally sent to the governor, as we shall see; and the Amherst passed up the river, in which it anchored near an island called Koo Keang. No sooner was the ship seen by the people, than they came down in multitudes from curiosity, and indeed, in the first few days, they so impeded the crew in their business, as to require that the captain of the ship should hang a rope across the deck, beyond which none were to pass. In conformity with the very politic conduct which they had adopted during the whole voyage, the party here, as elsewhere, fixed up a tablet, on which an inscription was engraved, implying

that medical assistance would be afforded gratuitously. The Chinese have a very strong confidence in the power of foreign physicians, and it was therefore with great delight that they read this address. On the afternoon of the day of their arrival, two respectable men came on board, and earnestly solicited a few of the party with whom they conversed, to land and see them at their village. Mr. Lindsay and Mr. Gutzlaff complied with the invitation, and proceeded to the island and there took tea in the shop of their host. The people of this island as they walked over it, exhibited a great desire to obtain some tracts which the travellers carried with them, and which were of a moral, religious, and scientific nature. Having walked, says Mr. Lindsay, over the island, we were about to return to the ship, when our two friends again assailed us with entreaties to return and partake of a small entertainment they had prepared for us ; this we could not refuse, although it was already dark, and they led us to a public ball of the village, where we found a table spread with an excellent Chinese dinner, to which we were invited to dine. Our hosts would not be seated, but stood and waited on us, at the same time keeping off the dense crowd, which soon filled every part of the hall. The younger ones climbed on the rafters, and every place from which a glimpse of the strangers could be caught. Nothing, however, could exceed the decorum which was kept up, or the general feeling of kindness and good-will which seemed to prevail towards us. This anecdote is trifling in itself, and unconnected with the public business of the voyage. I have mentioned it as indicative of the natural friendly disposition of the Chinese towards foreigners; and I am happy to say that ñothing occurred during our residence here in any way to lessen it.

Led by his experience, Mr. Lindsay now did not hesitate to propose an expedition to the capital itself of the province, Fuh chow-foo, in order to present his petition in his own person. On his ascent up the river, he was met by several mandarins' boats, which were carrying officers from the capital to hold communication with the strangers; but, by acting on their resolution to yield nothing to intimidation, the latter were allowed, though frequently stopped, to proceed without further molestation. After pulling for about twenty-five miles, they at last came within sight of the far-famed bridge, on both sides of which the town lies; and, having arrived at a public office on the south side, boldy inquired for the viceroy's palace. They were told that it was on the opposite side of the river; the boat veered about, and they dashed to that side. The bridge was covered with the awe-struck inhabitants; and, when five of the party landed, they were surrounded by an immense crowd. They had to proceed about a mile and a half through the suburbs, when they arrived at the city; here, they entered a spacious building, through a vaulted passage, to which, however, there were no gates, and afterwards walked

a quarter of a mile more, when they were ushered into a public office, the door of which was immediately closed after their entrance, in order to keep off the crowd. Here, the utmost amazement was expressed by the officers, who could not imagine for an instant how such an apparition could have come upon them, since the strangers were obviously beings in a form and shape, and with an exterior which they never had seen before, and yet had no guides to lead them. A mandarin soon came to take down the names and surnames of the party, upon which Mr. Lindsay showed his petition, saying, that he wished to present it in person. The officers told him that every thing should be settled by the next day, and that, upon that night, they should be conducted to a respectable house, not far from their ship, where they would be hospitably and kindly treated. The strangers, trusting to these promises, returned to the place where they had previously landed, but found that their destiny had really been appointed, not for the land, but for the water; and that they must retire to a boat selected on purpose for them in the river. After some altercation, they agreed to go to this boat, but, on reaching it, found that it was a common trading vessel, filled with persons of the lowest class. Mr. Lindsay, with his party, instantly returned to the shore, and, going straight to the custom-house, told the people that they intended to spend the night there. The residents immediately complied, and they had scarcely been seated there, when the mandarin named Whang, who had already been the person to procure them the boat which they were forced to abandon, made his appearance. As the place was government property, the party was induced to leave it, particularly as another mandarin who had already shown them kindness directed them to a public office belonging to a Tartar general, where they would, as he promised them, be taken care of. But scarcely had they established themselves there when they were again visited by Whang, who was insolent enough to tell them that barbarians could not be permitted to remain on shore, and ordered them contemptuously to rise and go back to their boats. Mr. Lindsay and his companions now became indignant, and burst forth into a torrent of abuse against Whang, telling him over and over again that they meant to stay where they were; and so saying, they drew a large table from the corner of the room, and placing their stores upon it, took their seats around it. It was midnight, says Mr. Lindsay, before the matter was finally settled, and the mandarins all left us to our repose. The old mwan-chow who had brought us here appeared much annoyed, and said, It is not my fault, but Whang is my superior; and both himself and several of the others expressed themselves ashamed of the inhospitality shewn towards us. It is worthy of remark, that, from the moment we put their authority at defiance, the demeanour of many of the mandarins who appeared before indifferent became

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