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officer, who selects, from among those Parliament. The rates levied by the qualified by law, such as he pleases. authority of the corporations, for pubThe civil courts appear either to have lic purposes, and which, in some cases, fallen entirely into disuse, or to have have been to a considerable amount, been but little resorted to.
constitute another fit head of inquiry. The next source of abuse is still Complaints have been made on this more important, and appears, from the subject; and, even if no complaints results of the committee's labours, to had been made, it seems to be expebe at once unjust and oppressive, in dient that some better and more effiits very partial operation; for they do cient checks than exist at present not hesitate to state, that the privi- should be established, for the benefit leges and exemptions from tolls and and protection of those who are to pay dues, which are enjoyed by freemen,
the rates. give them, in some cases, very con It further appears, that there are siderable advantage in the conduct of several corporations existing in the the ordinary affairs of life, over those hearts of counties, and no one can in who
ho are not freemen. It is stated the least explain the motives on which that two persons engaged in trade in the charter was granted to them. For Hull, and in all other respects being example, Bradninch is an agricultural equal, except that the one is and the parish in Devonshire, which has been other is not a freeman, the exemp- incorporated by charter. No reason tion from port, and other dues will appeared why it should have been segive an advantage to the freeman, to parated from the other parishes that the amount of 100l. per annum. It surround it; and, on the contrary, may well be questioned whether such your committee cannot hesitate to exexemptions rest on any public princi- press their opinion, that the condition ple sufficiently strong to compensate of the parish would be improved by for and justify an interference with being placed under the ordinary juthat equality of rights which ought to risdiction of the magistrates of the be enjoyed by members of the same county. The inference which your community. In most considerable committee draw from the cases into places, private acts of Parliament which they have inquired, is, that lithave been obtained for the purpose
of tle difficulty will be found in suggestwatching, paving, and lighting the ing a remedy for the defects which aptowns. Thus, some important func pear to exist in the towns where there tions of police have been transferred is a large population. The remedies, to bodies independent of, and uncon however, which might be applicable nected with the corporations; and, as to large towns, might not be capable the committee did not consider, that, of being applied, with equal success, under the reference made to them, to those that are small. This consithey had power to inquire into the deration appears to furnish an addiefficiency and administration of those tional reason for further inquiry, in acts, as regards the police of the re order that an attempt may be made spective towns, they have abstained to arrange the different corporations from the inquiry. It may be re into classes, and to devise some meamarked, however, that it is probable, sure to cure the defects or to remove that if the corporations had been more the evil of small corporations. popularly constituted, and had enjoyed But the most important part of the a larger share of public confidence, report is that in which the committee they might have been invested with a express their opinions on the general greater if not an exclusive controul subject of corporations. They are inover the execution of these acts of duced to believe, as they themselves
expressly admit, that corporations, as sion. Two plans were suggested: they at present are constituted, do not the one, to circulate queries, addresssuit the existing state of society, ed to the different corporations; the They find that the corporate officers other, to recommend the appointment are not identified with the community, of a commission. The first plan was who have rarely any influence in rejected, on the ground that queries choosing them, and have no control could not be framed so as to meet all over their proceedings. Corporate the various circumstances of the difoffices, even the highest in rank, are ferent corporations; that they might not always objects of desire, and are have been easily evaded; and that likely to be less so, now that the po the information might have been parlitical influence of corporations has tial. been so much diminished. To make The committee, in conclusion, recorporations instruments of useful commend that a commission should and efficient local government, it be appointed, which, by proceeding, seems to be essential that the corpo in every instance, to the spot where rate officers should be more popularly they can obtain the best possible evichosen; that the offices should be ac dence, would thereby be able to carry cessible to all that have entitled them on the investigation with the greatest selves, by their conduct, to the good success, opinion and confidence of their fel We are happy to be able to state, low citizens; that their proceedings that this proposal has been acted on should be open, and subject to the since the publication of the report, control of public opinion; and that it and that the commission is now in exshould be felt by the community, that istence. the maintenance of order, and the equal administration of justice in all things, depend on the energy and Art. XIV.--Lives of the most emiprinciple of the corporate officers. If nent Sovereigns of Modern Exthese objects could be obtained, there rope. By LORD DOVER. Written seems to be no reason to doubt that
by a Father for the Instruction and the wholesome influence and autho Amusement of his Eldest Son. In rity of corporations would be increas 1 vol. 12mo. London: N. Hailes. ed, that their powers of usefulness 1833. would be extended, that public confidence would be established, and that The late lamented Lord Dover, in the desire of honourable distinction, this little offering to his son, assumes and the sense of duty, would call in that most interesting of all characto the service of the community those ters, the amiable and competent prowho are most capable of discharging moter of the intellectual and moral the duties of the corporate offices instruction of his child. The work, with ability and integrity. Such are therefore, presents his Lordship besome of the results which your com fore us as an example for our imitamittee anticipate from a zealous and tion, such as we do not in gehonest prosecution of this most im neral expect from the members his portant inquiry; and they have ac high order, and we hail it as an auscordingly considered, with care, the
re, the picious token of the progress with best means of attaining the end. For which the conviction of the eternal the reasons which have been already superiority of mind over every other stated, your committee are of opinion, consideration is spreading. that it is not in their power to bring The small volume contains in a the inquiry to a satisfactory conclu- familiarly, but still elegantly expressed
form, the more striking events of the the Czar Peter, what a monument of lives of Gustavus Adolphus, John instruction is there not to be found Sobieski, Peter the Great, and Freds did he not engage in the lowest druderickjai In the dedication to his dear.
gain knowledge, and est boy, he informs him that he was was he not, from the want of education anxious to encourage within him the I religion, a barbarous and bloody love of history, and as this was in his man? In this strain is that Lord opiniont best to be done by attracting Dover would seek to give instruction the notice of such a youth by the to his son, thereby, not only rendermore amusing' study of remarkable ing an important service where it was and highly interesting biographies, so due, but indirectly setting an example did he think proper to adopt that that must prove beneficial, sooner or course. His selection had further
bado 102 103 for its motive to set before the youth
Igen, u BJ LITERE Enotatoqx3 the actions of distinguished men in
ART. XV.—The Reason for Protectorder to enable the susceptible read
tecting the Home Trade;s or, the er to estimate, at their proper value,
Principle of Free Trade Refuted. meritorious deeds. The noble Lord
By William Atkinson. London: goes on to say that he was anxious
1833. that his son, in becoming acquainted with those great characters, should This is a well-written pamphlet, and see in what a brief interval of human deserves to be read by every person life a vast accession of the means of in the discussion of the vast question happiness may be added to the exist of which it treats. Mr. Atkinson sets ing race of men by individuals pre out with laying down the principles of ferred by fortune to extensive power. his argument, stating his fundamental At the same time this great moral is proposition to be as follows:--namely, inculcated by the author, that the im that an increase of means must preperfections and errors of men of such cede an increase of species; and, in orsupreme abilities are only proofs of der to obtain and keep in view a right the native imperfection of man. Gus notion of the welfare of any society tavus Adolphus, for instance, the pos of people, or indeed of all mankind, sessor of the noblest virtues-gener
this proposition "must never be lost ous, brave, and religious—still was sight of. We know, by experience, tarnished with faults, if not with that the tendency of man's nature is crimes, and he lost himself in the constantly to increase its species, and overwhelming influence of that ambi we know by our reason that this intion which led him to designs of ag crease of species must be PRECEDED grandizement, involving all the hor by a constant increase of the means rors of war, such as his conscience of supporting it. The next inquiry is, never could have sanctioned. Then How is this end to be accomplished? look at Sobieski, the king of Poland, The first step towards it is, that who loved tranquillity and the pros one man procures from the earth more perity of his people far better than a food than will supply his own wants warrior's reputation; he who poured and those of his family, and is thus oil on the tumultuous waves of the enabled to offer to another man a porfactions of his dominions, and proved tion of his surplus food for anything himself the champion of Christendom that the other may be able to procure against Turkish fanaticism_he, alas, -such, for instance, as articles of was the slave of his unworthy spouse, clothing, for these naturally come and was heart-struck by the ingrati next in order to food. Thus, by mutude of his children. And, then in tual compact, a division of labour
commences, which is attended by ad notion was that the two islanders vantage to both. The one, by direct ought to have pelted: away the ining his industry to procuring food, truder from the coast, and shaken feels certain that he will obtain also hands over a mutual pledge that they the comfort of clothing: the other, would just stay as they were. The by directing his industry to the pro moment, therefore, says Mr. Atkincuring of clothes, knows also that he son, that people go hunting forforeign will earn food. Such are the sources partialities, that moment is the signal of the temporal well-being of man given for the fall of that people. , kind, and whether we regard them as two, or two millions, the principle must of necessity be and continue the Art. XVI.--Rosine Laval, a' Nosame. Having argued at some length vel. In 2 Vols. By R. SMITH, on these principles, the author comes Esq. . London: Newman & Co. to the consideration of the actual 1833. point itself—is it better to bury alone amongst ourselves what we want, than This is a genuine specimen of an than to allow strangers to come in with ántient, but, we are happy to say, still the goods and barter them for our com unexploded school of imaginative modities? The case is simply put by composition, sacred by its associations him in this way: he imagines the with the youth and buoyance in time existence of an island where two fami long past. The novel is exceedingly lies reside: one sows wheat, the other well written--the plot is interesting, makes clothes: they go on very com
and has the additional recommendafortably together, because the one tion of a catastrophe that is warranted clothes the other, and the other sends to be perfectly unbearable by any back the worth of the articles in young woman of only moderate senwheat. Whilst they are all going on sibility. There is no Tate and Brady very happily together, a devil of a work here, these being the emptymerchantman comes to the shore by headed mischief-makers who took poor stress of weather, and, as it is conve Lear out of the fit of madness, into nient for him to go to the place where which Shakspeare placed him, and he intended originally, he makes up his made the poor exhausted, decrepid mind to get rid of a small cargo in king rise up at the end of the act, and the island at all events. Well, his bow like a well-dressed speaker of a cargo turns out to be
choice prologue at the end of the play. No, cloth, much better and cheaper than no, Mr. Smith is truer to nature than the islander's, and the worst of it is all this, and so striet is the tribunal that the former is of the same opi over which he fortunately presides in nion, for he takes the resolution the poetical jurisdiction, that he keeps of giving his wheat for this cloth in to the old-fashioned practice of orderstead of that other. What is the con-' ing for execution those characters dition of our unhappy clothesman? who cannot be got rid of by milder Why, he has got a surplus of clothes -he has been making trousers for the last six months for all his little neighbours, from whose father he used ART. XVII.--Sermons on the Printo get the wheat, but as the wheat is ciples of Morality Inculcated in now gone, because the children don't
the Holy Scriptures, and their. want his clothes, so the brother is Application to the present Condilander of the man of food must lie tion of Society. By W. J. Fox. down und die. Now Mr. Atkinson's London: C. Fox. 1833.
In this very clever volume the Chrisk thors; and the probable Determin tian, no matter to what denomination Donation of the ancient Hebrew and his shade of belief may attach, will Egyptian Cubit; also, on the ori. find materials worthy his deep medita. 63-ginal Form and Measure of the tion, and recommended by the practi Arkof Noah 4to. London: Arch: cal connection which they possess 1838. with some of the most ordinary, but not on that account less important, The object of the present very learned duties of life. To those who are anx work, is, to furnish in a combined ious for a source of reference when form the several opinions, accounts, they become perplexed with any diffi and descriptions, which numerous auculty respecting their moral actions, thors and travellers have given of the er the course which they ought to origin and the end aimed at in the pursue under circumstances of new building of those extraordinary struccreation, to such we say we should tures, the Pyramids of Egypt, and recommend this clear and energetic also to lead the reader into the right volume, which is admirably compre- path for determining the question of hensive as to its application to all classes and orders of Christians. The It will be remembered, that even style is terse and could only proceed Herodotus, a writer who lived nearly from a mind well versed in the choic five centuries before the Christian era, est treasures of sacred eloquence. speaks of the pyramids as objects
known to antiquity. Only let us
consider at what era we are to date the Aur.XVII- The Original Legend antiquity of which Herodotus speaks,
of Der Freischutz, or the Free and we shall at once be satisfied that - Shot.", Translated from the Ger there is no chance of coming to any
man of A. Apal. London: Schloss. safe conclusion. But the ingenuity 11833.
of man for several thousands of years
has been directed to these strange RÉALLY this legend gives quite a monuments of human labour; and in new feature to the story which we every age, and in every nation, the have been so much accustomed to ad question has been asked, and is still mire as developed in the opera of repeated, for what purpose were such Der Freischutz It appears that the piles erected?. Conjecture upon conpresent translation is taken from the
jecture has been made, and in such German of A. Apel, and that the ori an abundance, that they are capable ginal formed a part in a collection of of being arranged into a series of similar stories, published under the heads, consisting of no less than setitle of Apel's and Laun's Gespenter
We shall give them in their Buch. As the little publication is order: 1. Granaries for the storing exceedingly cheap, along with being of corn for the purpose of meeting highly entertaining, we shall be con bad harvests. 2. Places of safety in tent with merely calling to it the at case a second deluge should visit the tention of our readers.
earth, or in case an extraordinary overflow of the Nile should take place.
3. Mausoleums, or tombs for kings, ART. XIX.*A Dissertation on the and other illustrious persons.
4. MoAntiquity, Origin, and Design numents to hand down the memory tof the Principal Pyramids of of glorious events or actions to reEgypt, particularly of the Great
5. Suitable placés Pyramid of Ghizeeh, with its Mea
for priests' to deliver their oracles. sures, as reported by various Au- 6. Positions intended as permanent