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Some account of the principal Portuguese characters composing the leaders, is presented to us, and a very curious one is given also of a previous meeting in Paris before Dom Pedro, of the Marquis of Palmella and Saldanha, to settle an old guarrel, but which terminated in an explosion. Col. Hodges in January, 1832, proceeded to Paris, and had an interview with Don Pedro. When he arrived at the hotel where the Emperor sojourned, he was kept a considerable time in expectation, but during the interval had full opportunity of observing the countenances of the several persons who, like himself, were in the ante-chamber. Some very skilfully drawn portraits are then given by the Colonel of the principal individuals whom he deemed worthy of his notice. We may mention amongst them Candido Jose Xavier, the majordomo and great mover of little events: then, his majesty's confessor, the renowned and reverend Padre Marcos; and Senhor Serpa, a semi-official man of all work. At length the Colonel was ushered in to Dom Pedro, and appears to have been considerably chagrined by the coldness and want of courtesy in his reception.
This deficiency, however, was fully compensated for by the cordiality with which he was received by the Empress. He then proceeded to Bellaisle, where he met Admiral Sartorius and the Chevalier Miranda. Here he had the pleasure of seeing the various ships of the expedition assembled, and in company with Sartorius visited them. The Colonel gives next a very spirited account of the arrival of Dom Pedro at Bellaisle, in a steamer, and his reception both from the ships and from the landsmen. The Emperor in acknowledging these marks of favour, and afterwards in his conduct, when Colonel Hodges presented to him the English officers, showed at once that he was deficient in that common sense which would lead a man under his very peculiar circumstances, to be even commonly polite to strangers. A few anecdotes of the Emperor whilst he spent a few days on board at this station will prove interesting.
• One of the Emperor's sources of diversion was to shoot sea-gulls: he was also attracted by the antics and monkey-tricks of some of the midshipmen. His attention to these latter perilous vagaries encouraged the high-spirited and thoughtless boys to perform their choicest feats of hazard, and their utmost niceties of desperate evolution, among the rigging. The entertainment had a more serious dénouement than was looked for. One of the youths, named Jones, unfortunately fell from the topmast; and had not his fall been broken by his coming in contact with the person of General Azerêdo, (who was on deck, and was felled to the ground by the concussion,) he must have been killed on the spot. As it was, he escaped with a compound fracture of the leg, while the innocent opposer of his descent was but momentarily stunned, and more frightened than hurt. When the extent of the mischief was understood to be thus limited, and it was clear that no lives were lost, His Imperial Majesty indulged himself in sundry speculations on the thickness of General Azerêdo's skull, which could thus sustain the whole momentum of a young gentleman from the. clouds.
* One evening, after the Emperor had retired to his cabin some time, I was suddenly summoned to attend him. Owing to my being on the quarter-deck, I had not immediately received the intimation. When I did so, I repaired instantly to his presence. Acting under the wish to save time, arising from the terms in which his commands had been conveyed, I did not wait to be announced, and, as I fear, entered abruptly. I found him writing, with two miniatures before him—one of the Empress, the other that of the infant Princess. I apologised for my seeming want of respect, but was re-assured by the words of the Emperor, Requesting me to wait a moment, he stated that he was writing to the Empressdaily practice with him (he said) when opportunity allowed; and he added that he could seldom do so under present circumstances, without being sensibly affected by thinking of her as the best of wives, and by remembering his youthful family, separated so far from him, and in different hemispheres. As he said this, he shewed me the two miniatures. Dom Pedro at that moment stood higher in my estimation than he had yet done. It was gratifying to witness in the Prince the amiable emotions of the man -the natural feelings of the husband and father.
• After a few minutes had elapsed, he changed his tone, and inquired how I could allow a person of the name of Dixon to join, without his sanction, the battalion I commanded? He desired that I would immediately send him ashore. I begged to know his Majesty's reasons; he gave me none, but repeated his orders that the person in question should be sent ashore that night, and have no further connexion with the expedition. As there was no alternative, the order was put in execution immediately.'-Vol. i. pp. 71, 72-93, 94.
Dom Pedro showed great jealousy and impatience at many little matters which were scarcely worth the attention of a well-directed mind; by his conduct towards the strangers, and particularly the English portion of them, he proved himself deficient in the most obvious duties of a man placed as he then was.
But his folly was still more outrageously betrayed by the unwarrantable liberties which he took in giving arbitrar ycommands in the ship commanded by the Admiral, without even a communication with him. The Admiral, however, instead of submitting to the usurpation, remonstrated with his Majesty on the impropriety of his proceeding. An explanationCol. Hodges tells us, soon took place, in which the Admiral pointed out to the Emperor the utter impolicy of his Majesty's interference in the discipline and arrangements of the ship, and the danger likely to result to his Majesty's interests by a departure from this principle. He also ventured to allude in strong terms to his cold and discouraging behaviour towards the British officers, and to the dangerous tendency of such conduct. Much to the satisfaction of the Admiral, the Emperor received his representations with courtesy and even good humour. He assured him that it was far from his real wish to shew coldness to any one; and earnestly begged him to remove this impression from their minds, if it should unfortunately prevail.
But it seems that the Emperor piques himself upon his nautical knowledge, and hence we have an explanation, but by no means
an excuse, for his vexatious interference with the functions of the Admiral. But he is described by the candid Colonel, at the same time, as a peculiarly abstemious man, possessing a high natural sense of justice, a hatred of oppression, and a general and warm benevolence. Some pleasant miscellaneous anecdotes of occurrences in the frigate are told by Colonel Hodges, for which we regret that we have no room. But it appears from one of them, that the temper of the Emperor became most ferociously altered by the accident of his water-filter being broken! According to the Colonel, the incontinence of his anger on this point, spared neither Admiral nor officers, whom he accused, in common with the servants, of an utter absence of regard for his personal comforts, knowing, as they did, that his only beverage was water! nor did he omit to remark, that he was sure the Champagne was taken far better care of than the water-filterer!
The expedition was, at the time we speak of, at sea, and on its way to the Azores, and it reached St. Michael's after rather a rough passage. Here the Colonel found his own complement of men still maintaining the consistency of their bad character, and his time was now altogether taken up in attempting to bring them to a reasonable temper. At this island the head quarters were established, and the first step taken was the appointment of a cabinet of ministers. Colonel Hodges unfolds with great acuteness the strange complications into which the intrigueing spirit of the Portuguese threw the simplest questions connected with this proceeding. The direct object of the expedition was canvassed likewise with zeal. But notwithstanding the appropriation of his time to considerations of such importance, the Emperor could still afford leisure to attract public attention to measures of his which were connected with the local legislation of these islands. Of this nature were the abolition of a certain tax in the shape of lay tithes, which pressed upon the poorer part of the inhabitants; the dismissal of all friars from their monasteries, with the assumption by the government of the administration of the lands attached to them; and the throwing open of the convents, so far as to permit those nuns to return to their families who might choose to do so, allowing to each of them an annual stipend; while those who, from religious motives, habit, or other inducement, might prefer to continue in seclusion, were to be limited to the occupation of a single nunnery in each island, whereas there were previously eight at St. Michael's, six at Terceira, and a proportionate number in the smaller islands.
In Terceira, the melancholy death of a British officer, Captain Ramus, took place by accident: it is fully and pathetically described by the Colonel. He also presents to us a very full and interesting account of the attack of Dom Miguel's fleet, in 1829, in the Western Islands, and of the proceedings of Count Villa Flor at that period. The portion of the expedition under the imme
diate command of Colonel Hodges, which had distinguished itself all through by its bad character, was found during the stay of the squadron at Terceira to be reduced by the number of six, this diminution being attributed solely to the fatal effects of intoxication. Amongst the victims was a man named Clark, a native of Sussex (near Rye). He made a singular confession a short time before his death. He stated himself to have been a passive accessary to a murder committed in the neighbourhood of Sevenoaks by a man named James Larkins. The murdered person was a young woman called Sarah Sivier. The statement was transmitted to the British Vice-consul, to be by him forwarded to the head of the Home Department in England.
A very good and favourable account of Terceira and its inhabitants is given in this work, and, from the description, we extract the following particulars, relating to one of the most striking examples of their observance of a feast:
Every year, on the day of Pentecost, an individual from each of the villages throughout the islands (for this fete is general in the Azores) is chosen “Emperor," as he is termed, for the occasion. In his house there is established an altar dedicated to the Holy Spirit, and a figurative saint is placed thereon. On every Sunday after Ash-Wednesday, up to Trinity Sunday, there are fetes at this "Emperor's ” house; and it is considered as a want of respect to the conventional majesty of this person not to pay him frequent visits, and partake of his fare, however frugal it may chance to be. The magnificence of the fete increases, or is meant to increase, in regular gradation from Easter to Whitsunday. On the Saturday evenings, at the "Emperor's" house, the dance of the "Santo Spirito” takes place. In this both males and females join, to the sound of their own discordant voices, aggravated sometimes to the metallic accompaniment of a wirestrung sort of guitar. The gestures of this dance have as little of ideal grace as of personal delicacy; and the extemporary effusions of the performers have any thing but sanctity to recommend them. On the Sunday, the "Emperor” walks at different periods of the day in procession. He wears a crown of massive silver, which, by the bye is taken off the head of some convenient santo in one of the churches, and then left in His Imperial Majesty's holy keeping for the prescribed period of his reign. He is attended by a suite, of no doubt) officers of state, and by six bare-legged, unwashed, little urchins, representing angels. The majority of the cortège are pranked out in faded silk cloaks, and bedizened with artificial flowers, the ingenious manufacture of the nuns. The beating of a small-sized drum, and discharges from old rusty fire-arms, generally furnish the close to these processions, except on the day of Pentecost, when all the clergy, secular as well as monastic, are present at the solemnity.'-Vol. i. pp. 230-232.
The liberating army was recruited by a number of volunteers from the Azores, and a grand review took place by the Emperor in, person, previously to the embarkation for the final destination, which took place in the month of June. The whole fleet proceeded, with a fair wind, to the scene of action. The landing is too
recent and familiar to allow of our repeating the details of that event, but Col. Hodges bears testimony to the delight which was manifested by the Portuguese soldiers on once more pressing the soil of their country. It was really affecting to witness the strong enthusiasm with which many of them threw themselves prostrate on the ground, kissing it, and solemnly vowing to conquer or die in support of those liberties they were pledged to establish there. No men could have exhibited more genuine marks of patriotic devotion than the Portuguese soldiers.
But when the invading army advanced on Oporto, the author confesses that the tone of feeling of the inhabitants was any thing but enthusiastic. The Colonel reprobates, without qualification, the policy which was adopted by the constitutional party immediately on its arrival Oporto, and many fine opportunities in its favour were lost by the weak confidence which Dom Pedro yielded to the perverse councils which had been given him.
The first order received by Col. Hodges, at Oporto, was to put himself at the head of the 1st battalion of the 18th regiment of the line, and move forward into Portugal. He acted accordingly, and proceeded as far as Corvoeiro, whence he returned, according to his orders. This circumstance is only worth mentioning, as it gave the Colonel an opportunity of witnessing the feelings of the people. But he still found the greatest apathy prevailing. The peasantry continued, he says, in the exercise of their usual affairs of husbandry with the appearance of perfect indifference, and of not even noticing us.
It was with much difficulty that he could procure any sort of information from them. Whilst the colonel and his men were passing through a small village that skirted the road, a few old women showed themselves. Some of the soldiers cried out, Donna Maria II !” and an officer held out a small piece of silver to one of the ancient females, who was of a miserable aspect, with the invitation to cry, “Viva Dom Pedro!" The old dame, however, was incorruptible at any such price, and not only refused that ejaculation, but screamed forth pertinaciously the very opposite one of “ Viva Dom Miguel Primeiro! Viva o Rei absoluto !” This proclamation of her sentiments had like to have cost the poor old creature somewhat dear; for the Portuguese soldiers were so indignant against her, that the Colonel found it necessary to charge an officer and a file of men with her protection until the column bad passed by.
In a subsequent page, Col. Hodges describes the costume or uniform worn by the armed peasantry, whom he met on his way to a place called Penafiel. This dress was both picturesque and becoming, and consisted of short white jacket and trowsers, a waist belt in which they carried their ammunition, pistols, and bayonet, and a large straw-hat begirt with ribbons of the national colours, dark blue and red. A long knife (a customary weapon with the Portuguese) was secreted near the breast. Those who did not
muskets had a long pole with a sharp-pointed spear at the end of it.