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church at Norham, according to the accounts given by the inhabitants of that place, became famous for working many miracles. Through the influence of this king, after he had become a monk, licence was granted to the monks of the church of Lindisfarne to drink wine or ale; for before, they were in the habit of drinking only milk or water, according to the ancient rule prescribed by Saint Aidan, the first bishop of that church, and that of the monks who, coming with him from Scotland, had received there a settlement by the munificence of king Oswald, and rejoiced to live in great austerity, with a view to a future life.

In the same year, many cities, monasteries, and towns, in various places, and even kingdoms, were laid waste by sudden conflagrations; such, for instance, as the city of Sterburgwenta,22 Homunic,23 the city of London, the city of York, and Doncaster; many other places also, the same calamity overtook.

In the same year died Frehelm the priest and abbat, and Tocca,24 bishop of the Mercians, on which Eadbert was ordained bishop in his room. At this period, also, Frithwold, bishop of Whitherne, departed from this world, and Pechtwin was appointed in his stead.25

22 This is most probably an error, the name of two places being made into one. Lambarde in his Dictionary, quoting from Simeon of Durham, mentions in place of this name, Stretbourgh and Winton, and adds, "by which order of speech it seemeth that he took it for a great town; howbeit, I have not hitherto found it." Holinshed (whether quoting from Roger de Hoveden, or Simeon of Durham, does not appear,) mentions here Stretebu and Geivento, places, not improbably, as imaginary as the Sterburgwenta of our text.

23 It is not clear what place is meant by this name. Holinshed mentions it as Alnwick.

4 V. r. Totta.

25 In the text, " Candida Casa," or "the White House." The bishopric of Whitherne was also called that of the Picts, Abercorn, or Galloway. Its establishment is thus related by Bede, Eccles. Hist. B. iii. c. 4. "In year of our Lord 565, when Justin the younger, the successor of Justinian, had the government of the Roman empire, there came into Britain a famous priest and abbot, a monk by habit and life, whose name was Columba, to preach the word of God to the province of the northern Picts, who are separated from the southern parts by steep and rugged mountains; for the southern Picts, who dwell on the side of those mountains, had long before, as is reported, forsaken the errors of idolatry, and embraced the truth, by the preaching of Ninias, a most reverend bishop and holy man of the British nation, who had been regularly instructed at

In the year 765, fiery strokes were seen in the air, such as formerly appeared on the night of the calends of January, as I have already mentioned.26 In the same year Ethelwald lost27 the kingdom of Northumbia at "Wincanheale,28 on the third day before the calends of November, and was succeeded in the kingdom by Alcred, who was a descendant, as some say, of king Ida. Hemeli, bishop of the Mercians, also departed this life. Cuthred was ordained bishop of Lichfield; and at the same period archbishop Bregwin died, and had Lambert for his successor; bishop Aldulph also dying, Ceolwulph succeeded him in the diocese of Lindesey.

In the year 766, Egbert, archbishop of York, rested in the peace of Christ, on the thirteenth day before the calends of December, it being the thirty-fourth year of his episcopate; and in the same year Saint Frithebert, bishop of Hagustald,29 departed this life.

In the year 767, Albert was consecrated bishop of York, and Alcmund bishop of Hexham, on the eighth day before the calends of May. In the same year Albert was ordained bishop of the East Saxons, and Ceolwulph was consecrated bishop of Lindesey. In this year also, Etha, the anchorite, died happily at Cric,30 a place distant about ten miles from the city of York.

In the year 768, being the tenth year after the abdication of his kingdom, Eadbert happily breathed forth his spirit, being a member of the priesthood, and devoted to the service of God. In the same year died Pepin, king of the Franks, and Hadwin was ordained bishop at Macuhi.31

Rome, in the faith and mysteries of the truth; whose episcopal see, named after St. Martin the bishop, and famous for a stately church (wherein he and many other saints rest in the body), is still in existence among the British nation. The place belongs to the province of the Bernicians, and is generally called the ' White House,' because he there built a church of stone, which was not usual among the Britons."

26 Under the year 745.

27 This seems to imply that he was deprived of it by treachery or violence. Holinshed says, "After that Moll had reigned six years, he resigned his kingdom. But others write that he reigned eleven years, and was in the end slain by treason of his successor Altred."

28 Probably Finchale, in Durham; though Lambarde suggests that Wighal, near Thorpehares, in Yorkshire, is the place here spoken of.

29 Hexham. 30 Probably Crecca, or Crake, near York.

31 Probably Saint Mesmin de Mici, in the province of Orleans, in France.

In the year 769. Cataract31 was burnt by the tyrant Carnred, and by the judgment of God, he himself perished by fire in the same year.

In the year 771, Offa, king of Mercia, subdued in war the nation of the East Angles. In the same year, Carloman, the king of the Franks, being attacked by a sudden disease, departed this life, on which his brother Charles,32 who had before possessed half his father's kingdom, acquired the sovereignty of the whole, and afterwards, by his invincible bravery, obtained the chieftainship of all the peoples of the Franks.

In the year 772, Charles, the king of the Franks, having collected a powerful army and assembled the warlike forces of his kingdom, invaded the nation of the Saxons, and after having lost many of his principal and most noble men, betook himself home.

In the year from the incarnation of our Lord 773, bishop Had win32* departed this life, and Leuthfrid was appointed bishop in his room. Wulfeth also, abbat of Beverley, died, and Albert, the archbishop of York, received the pall that had been sent to him by pope Adrian.

In the year 774, duke Eadwulph died, and Alcred being deprived of the counsel and assistance of his own family and his chief men, exchanged the dignity of a crown for exile, and with a few companions of his flight, first betook himself to the city of Bebba,33 and afterwards to the king of the Picts whose name was Cynoth. The city of Bebba is an extremely well fortified place, of no great size, but extending over the space of about two or three fields, having a single approach, hollowed out [of the rock], and in a wonderful manner raised on high and ascended by steps; it has, on the summit of a hill, a church most beautifully built, in which is a precious shrine, wherein, wrapped in a pall, lies the right hand of the holy king Oswald, uncorrupted, as Bede, the historian of this nation, relates. There is on the western side, and in the highest part of the city, a fountain

31 Catterick, in Yorkshire. 32 Known in history as Charlemagne.

s2* The words in the original are "Episcopus Migensis." It is not improbable that the bishopric of Orleans is here alluded to; probably the same that is mentioned under the year 768.

* Bamborough.

hollowed out in a marvellous fashion, the water of which is sweet to drink, and most limpid to the sight.

Ethelred,34 the son of Ethelwald, reigned in his father's stead, and, as will appear in the sequel, held the government hardly five years. At the same period, Charles, the most invincible king of the Franks, after having harassed it with a siege, took Ticinum, the most noble city of the Lombards, together with king Desiderius himself, and gained possession of the whole of Italy.

In the year 775, Cynoth, king of the Picts, departed this life, and duke Eadulph was fraudulently taken prisoner by stratagem, and after a short time slain, buried, and forgotten. Abbat Ebbi also died, and king Charles, as I have already observed, the most warlike of the Franks, being attended and supported by, and glorying in, the entire might of his army, entered the country of the Saxon in battle array, and accompanied by his legions. This district, raging with fire and sword, he laid waste by most severe conflicts; inflamed with furious anger, with a mighty arm he succeeded in adding to his own supreme empire the cities of Sigeburg and Aresburg,35 and the province of Bohwer,58 which had been previously overrun by the Franks.

In the year 777, Pecwin, bishop of Whitherne, departed to the Lord, and was succeeded by Ethelbert.

In the year 779, Ethelred being expelled from the throne,31 and driven into exile, was forced to undergo great trials. On the expulsion of Ethelred, Elfwald, the son of Osulph, received the kingdom of Northumbria, and held it ten years. He was a pious and just king, as a future circumstance will prove.

In the year 780, dukes Osbald and Ethelherd, having collected an army, burned Bearn, the king's patrician,39 at Seletune,38 on the ninth day before the calends of January. In the same year, archbishop Albert departed from this world unto Christ, Eanbald, while he was yet alive, having been appointed to the

3i By some called Ethelbert. J5 Probably Arensberg, in Westphalia.

36 Probably a mistake for Roer, or Rohwer, a river of Westphalia, the allusion being to the province through which it flows.

37 Of Northumbria. 38 See the note under year 788.

59 Lambarde says, " I take this place to be Salton, now in Yorkshire, and yet the conjecture were not unreasonable to think it Salston, in Nottinghamshire."

same see. Bishop Kinewulph40 also, having laid aside the cares of the world, this year gave up the government of his church, togetherwith the management of all his household,41 to Higbald. In the same year also, bishop Eanbald, having received the pall which had been sent him from the Apostolic See, was solemnly invested as archbishop.

In the year 781, Alcmund, bishop of Hagustald, a man of remarkable piety and of great virtues, departed to Christ, in the third year of the reign of the glorious king Elfwald, on the seventh day before the ides of September; Saint Gilbert42 succeeded him.

In the year 783, being the third year of the righteous king Elfwald, "Warburg, who had formerly been queen of the Mercians, but was then an abbess, departed this life, to live eternally with Christ. At the same period, bishop Kinewulph departed to the realms of heaven in the fortieth year of his episcopate.

In the year 786, being the eighth year of king Elfwald, Bothwin, the venerable abbat of the church of Ripon, in the sight of his brethren who were present, departed to the kingdom of heaven, and Albert was elected in his room and ordained. In the same year Aldulph was consecrated bishop by archbishop Eanbald, and bishops Gilbert and Higbald, at Corbridge.43 In these days, Rictrith, who was formerly a queen, and afterwards an abbess, departed unto the Lord. At the same period, Kinewulph, king of the West Saxons, was murdered in a dreadful manner by the perfidious tyrant Kinebard, and the cruel assassin, himself, was without mercy slain by duke Osred, the avenger of his master; upon which, Brithric received the kingdom of the West Saxons. At this time, legates from the Apostolic See were sent to Britain (the venerable bishop George being the chief among them) by pope Adrian, to renew among us the ancient ties of friendship and the catholic faith, which Saint Gregory the pope had taught through Saint Augustine: having been honorably received by the kings and archbishops or primates of this country, they returned home in peace, with great presents, as was befitting.

In the year 787, a synod was held at Wincanhealc,44 on the

40 Bishop of Lindisfarne.

41 "Familiae;" alluding probably to the community of monks at Lindisfarne. 42 Roger of Wendover says Tilbert.

43 In Northumberland. 44 See under the year 765.

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