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at Bricenamere ;M having taken the place, they captured the wife of the king of the Britons, with thirty-four men, and brought them prisoners into ilercia.

In the year 914, Egelfleda, the lady of the Mercians, on the day before the calends of August, took Derby by storm, and gained possession of that province; four of her thanes, who were most esteemed by her, were there slain at the city gate, while bravely fighting.

In the year 915, Egelfleda, the lady of the Mercians, a woman of remarkable prudence, justice, and virtue, departed this life, on the nineteenth day before the calends of July, in the eighth year after she by herself had governed the kingdom of the Mercians with a vigorous rule, and left her only daughter Elfwinna, whom she had by Ethered, the king's earl, heiress to her kingdom. Her body was conveyed to Gloucester, and honorably buried in the church of Saint Peter.

In the year 916, king Edward sent into Northumbria an army of Mercians, to liberate the city of Mamcestre,35 and post there some brave soldiers as a garrison. After this, he entirely deprived his niece Elfwinna of her authority in the kingdom of Mercia, and ordered her to be taken into Wessex. King Sithrie also took Devonport by storm.

In the year 917, the king of the Scots, with the whole of his nation, Reginald, king of the Danes, with the Danes and English who inhabited Northumbria, and the king of the Strath-Clyde Britons,36 with his people, chose Edward the Elder as their father and liege lord, and made a lasting treaty with him.

In the year 918, the Clito Ethelward, brother of king Edward, departed this life, on the seventeenth day before the calends of November, and was buried at Winchester; Ethelstan, the bishop of the Wiccii,37 also died, and was succeeded by Wilfred.

In the year from the incarnation of our Lord 919,38 Edward the Elder, the most invincible king of the English, departed this life, at the royal town which is called Fearndun,39 in the thirty-fourth40 year of his reign, and the fifteenth of the indic

M Brecknock. 35 Manchester.

36 This, no doubt, as we learn from other historians, is the meaning of the word " Strecglendwalli." 37 Bishop of Worcester.

* The other chroniclers say that he died in the year 921. 19 Faringdon, in Berkshire.

40 This is an error, as it should be twenty-fourth; though, according to our author's reckoning, it would be in the twentieth.

tion, after having greatly distinguished himself while king. He reigned most gloriously over all the nations that inhabited Britain, both those of the Angles, the Scots, the Cumbrians, the Danes, and the Britons.41 After his death, he left the helm of state to his son Ethelstan, and his body having been carried to "Winchester, was buried with regal pomp at the new monastery there.

Ethelstan was crowned at Kingestun,42 which means "the royal town," and was consecrated with due honor by Athelin, archbishop of Canterbury. In his time, the illustrious child Dunstan was born in the kingdom of Wessex.

In the year 920, Ethelstan, the illustrious and glorious king of the English, with great pomp and state, gave his sister in marriage to king Sithric, who was of Danish origin.

In the year 921, king Sithric departed this life, and king Ethelstan having expelled his son Cuthred, who had succeeded his father, added his kingdom to his own dominions. All the kings beside, of the whole of Albion, namely, Huwald,43 king of the West Britons,44 Constantine, king of the Scots, and Wuer,44 king of the Wenti, he conquered in battle and utterly routed. All of these, seeing that they could not resist his valour, met him on the fourth day before the ides of July, at a place which is called Eamot, and having made the oaths, made a lasting treaty with him.

In the year 922, Wilfred, bishop of the Wiccii, died, and was succeeded by Kinewold.

In the year 923, Frithestan, bishop of Winchester, a man of remarkable sanctity, resigned the bishopric of Winchester, Brinstan, a religious man, being ordained bishop in his stead, and in the following year departed to the Lord.

In the year 924, king Ethelstan ordered his brother Edwin to be drowned in the sea.

In the year 925, Ethelstan, the valiant and glorious king of the English, Constantine, king of the Scots, having broken the treaty which he had made with him, marched with a large army into Scotland, and coming to the tomb of Saint Cuthbert, commended himself and his expedition to his guardianship, and presented to him many and various gifts, such as befitted a

41 The Welsh. * Kingston-on-Thames.

13 Howel. « West Welsh.

46 Roger of Wendover calls him Wulferth. The Wenti were probably the people of Monmouthshire.

king, and lands as well; consigning to everlasting flames those who should take away any portion therefrom. After this, with a very large force he subdued the enemy, and with his army laid waste Scotland, even as far as Feoder and "Wertermore, while with his fleet he ravaged as far as Catenesin consequence of this, king Constantine, being compelled so to do, gave up his son to him as a hostage, together with suitable presents; and the peace being thus renewed, the king returned to Wessex. In the same year Saint Bristan departed this life.

In the year 925, the religious monk Elphege, surnamed the Bald, a kinsman of Saint Dunstan, received the bishopric of Winchester.

In the year 927, Anlaf, the pagan king of Ireland and of many of the islands, being encouraged by his father-in-law, Constantine, king of the Scots, entered the mouth of the Humber with a vast fleet, amounting to six hundred and fifteen sail; on which he was met by king Ethelstan and his brother the Clito Edmund, with an army, at the place which is called Brumanburgh.47 The battle lasted from the beginning of the day to the evening, and they slew five minor kings and seven dukes, whom the enemy had invited to their aid, and shed such a quantity of blood, as in no battle before that had ever been shed in England; and, having compelled the kings Anlaf and Constantine, and the king of the Cumbrians, to fly to their ships, they returned in great triumph. But the enemy having experienced extreme disaster in the loss of their army, returned home with only a few men.

In the year from the incarnation of our Lord 940, Ethelstan, the valiant and glorious king of the English, departed this life at Gloucester, in the sixteenth year of his reign, and in the fourteenth of the indiction, on the sixth day before the calends of November, being the fourth day of the week; his body was carried to the city of Maidulph,47* and was there honorably interred. His brother Edmund succeeded him in the eighteenth year of his age.

In the year 941, the Northumbrians proving regardless of the fealty which they owed to Edmund, the mighty king of the English, chose Anlaf, king of the Norwegians

46 Caithness.

47 Or Brunenburgh; 1 rumley, in Lincolnshire. This battle was the subject of an Anglo-Saxon poem, which is still in existence.


as their king. The elder Richard became duke of the Normans, and continued so for fifty-two years.

In the first year of the reign of king Edmund, king Anlaf first came to York, and then marching to the south, laid siege to Hamtune ;44 but not succeeding there, he turned the steps of his army towards Tameworde,45 and having laid waste all tho places in the neighbourhood, while he was returning to Legacestre,46 king Edmund met him with an army; but he had not a severe struggle for the mastery,47 since the two archbishops Odb and Wulstan, having allayed the anger of both of the kings, put an end to the fight. And thus peace being made, the Watlingastrete48 was made the boundary of both kingdoms; Edmund having the sway on the southern side, and Anlaf on the northern. Anlaf having pillaged the church of Saint Balther and burnt Tinningham, shortly after perished. After this, the people of York laid waste the island of Lindisfarne, and slew great numbers. The son of Sithric, whose name was Anlaf, then reigned over the Northumbrians.

In the year 942, Edmund, the mighty king of the English, entirely wrested five cities, namely, Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby, Leicester, and Stamford from the hands of the Danes, and reduced the whole of Mercia under his own power. He was a friend49 of Dunstan, the servant of God, and by following his counsels became renowned. Being loaded by him with various honors the latter was appointed to the abbacy of Glastonbury, in place he had been educated.

In the year 943, when his queen, Saint Elgiva, had borne to Edmund, the mighty king, a son named Edgar, Saint Dunstan heard voices, as though on high, singing and repeating, "Peace to the church of England in the times of the child that is now born, and of our Dunstan." In this year, the same king raised king Anlaf, of whom we have previously made mention, from the font of holy regeneration, and gave him royal presents, and shortly afterwards held Reginald, king of the

44 Southampton. 45 Tamworth. 48 Leicester.

41 On the contrary, Roger of Wendover says that the loss on either side was excessive.

4s The road which passed from the south of England, through London, into the north.

49 There is little doubt that the word "summus" here, is an error for "amicus."

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Northumbrians when he was confirmed by the bishop, and adopted him as his own son.

In the year 944, Edmund, the mighty king of the English, expelled two kings, namely, Anlaf, son of king Sithric, and Beginald, son of Guthferth, from Northumbria, and reduced it to subjection.

In the year 945, Edmund, the mighty king of the Englisfi, laid waste the lands of the Cumbrians, and granted them to Malcolm, king of the Scots, on condition that he should be faithful to him both by land and sea.

In the year from the incarnation of our Lord 946, Edmund, the mighty king of the English on the day of the feast of Saint Augustine, the instructor of the English, while, at a town, which in English is called Pucklecirce,60 he was attempting to rescue his sewer Leo51 from the hands of a most vile robber, for fear lest he should be killed, was slain by the same man, after having reigned five years and seven months, in the fourth year of the indiction, on the seventh day before the calends of June, being the third day of the week. Being taken to Glastonbury, he was there interred by Saint Dunstan, the abbat.

His brother Edred succeeded him in the kingdom, and was consecrated king by Saint Odo, the archbishop, at Kingston.

In the year 947, Wulstan, archbishop of York, and all the nobles of Northumbria, swore fidelity to Edred, the excellent king of the English, at a town which is called Tadeneselif,82 but they did not long observe it; for they elected a certain man, named Eiric, a Dane by birth, to be king over them.

In the year 948, in return for the unfaithfulness of the Northumbrians, Edred, the excellent king of the English, laid waste the whole of Northumbria; in which devastation the monastery at Rhipum,63 which was said to have been formerly built by Saint Wilfred, the bishop, was destroyed by fire. But, as the king was returning homewards, the army sallied forth from York, and made great slaughter of the rear of the king's

50 Pucklechurch, in Gloucestershire. Matthew of Westminster and Roger of Wendover call the place Micklesbury.

61 It is more generally represented that the name of the robber was Leof; the name no doubt which is here given to the attendant.

13 Lambarde takes this place to be the same as Topcliff, in Yorkshire.

53 Ripon.

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