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In the year 1095, at the middle of the seventh hour, on the night of Saturday, the eighteenth day of the month of January, Wulstan, the bishop of Worcester, was removed from this world; a venerable man, and one of most exemplary life, who from his youth had entirely devoted himself to his religious duties, and who, bent upon gaining the glory of the heavenly kingdom, with great devotion and humility of mind had carefully served God with the utmost zeal, and departed after many struggles of pious agony. This took place in the year, from the first day of the world, according to the assured account contained in the Holy Scriptures, five thousand two hundred and ninety-nine,7 in the four hundred and seventy-sixth year of the present great year8 from the beginning of the world, in the one thousand and eighty-fourth from the Passion of our Lord according to the Gospels, in the one thousand and sixty-sixth year according to the Chronicle of Bede, in the thousand and sixty-first year according to Dionysius,9 in the year from the arrival of the Angles in Britain seven hundred and forty-five, from the arrival of Saint Augustine four hundred and ninetyeight, from the death of Saint Oswald the archbishop, one hundred and three, in the thirty-second year of the eleventh great Paschal cycle, in the five hundred and tenth year of the tenth from tbe beginning10 of the world, in the fourth year of the second Solar cycle," in the third year of the Bissextile cycle, in the third year of the second Nineteen year cycle, in the tenth year of the second Lunar cycle,12 in the fifth year of the Hendecad,13 in the third year of the cycle of Indiction, in the eighteenth lustrum of his age, and in the third year of the seventh lustrum" of his pontificate.

In a wondrous manner, at the very hour of his departure, he appeared in a vision to his friend, Rgbert, the bishop of Hereford, to whom he was especially attached, at a town

'According to the computation mostly used in the middle ages, our Saviour was born A.m. 4204.

8 This seems to be a cycle of nearly eleven years.

9 Dionysius, the Areiopagite; whose supposed writings were much read in the middle ages.

10 This is, probably, a cycle of five hundred and thirty-two years,

11 The cycle of the sun, or of Sundays, is a period of twenty-eight years. "This would almost appear to be really the same cycle as the last; as

the cycle of the moon, or of nineteen years, or of the golden number, is the same thing. Possibly the figures are incorrectly stated.

13 A cycle of eleven years.

14 These lustra consist of five years each.

called Cricklade, and ordered him to make hasto to Worcester, to bury him. The ring, also, with which he had received the pontifical benediction, God would allow no one to draw from off his finger, lest, after his death, the holy man should appear to have deceived his friends, to whom he had frequently foretold that he would not part with it, either in his lifetime or at the day of his burial.

On the day before the nones of April, it seemed at night as though stars were falling from heaven. Walter, bishop of Albano, legate from the Holy Church of Rome, being sent by pope Urban, came to England before Easter, to bring the pall to king William, for which he had sent the year before; which, according to order, was, on the Lord's day, being the fourth day before the ides of June, taken by him to Canterbury, and laid upon the altar of our Saviour, and then assumed by Anselm, and suppliantly kissed by all, as a mark of reverence to Saint Peter.

On the sixth day before the calends of July, being the third day of the week, Robert, bishop of Hereford, a man of extreme piety, departed this life. The above-named Wulstan, bishop of Worcester, appeared to him in a vision, on the thirty-second day after he had departed from this world, and sharply rebuked him for his negligence and heedlessness, admonishing him to use his best endeavours to amend both his own life and those of his flock, with the utmost vigilance: if he did this, he affirmed that he would soon obtain pardon of God for all his sins, and added, that he would not long retain his seat in the chair in which he then sat, but that, if he should choose to be more vigilant, he would be enabled to rejoice with himself in the presence of God. For both of these fathers had been most zealous in their love of God, and most attached to each other; therefore we have reason to believe that he who was the first to take his departure from this world unto God, felt an anxiety for his most beloved friend, whom he had left in this world, and used his best endeavours that he might, as soon as possible, together with himself, rejoice in the presence of God.

At this period, llobert de Mowbray, earl of Northumbria, and William de Eu, with many others, attempted to deprive king William of his kingdom and life, and to make Stephen de Albemarle, his aunt's son, king, but were disappointed. For, on learning this, the king levied an army throughout the whole of England, and, during two months, besieged the castle of the above-named earl Robert, at Tynemouth; and, having in the mean time taken a certain small fortress, he captured almost all the earl's bravest soldiers, and placed them in confinement, and then, laying siege to the castle, took it, and placed in custody the earl's brother, and the knights whom he found there. After this, over against Bebbanbirg,14* that is to say, the city of Bebba, whither the earl had fled, he erected a castle, and called it "Malvoisin,"16 and, having placed soldiers therein, returned to the country south of the Humber.

After the king's departure, the garrison of Newcastle16 promised earl Robert that they would allow him to enter it if he came secretly. Being overjoyed at this, he went forth on a certain night for that purpose, with thirty knights; on learning which, the knights who garrisoned the castle followed him, and, through messengers, made known his departure to the garrison of Newcastle. Not aware of this, on a certain Sunday, he made the attempt to carry out his plans, but failed, having been thus detected; on which, he fled to the monastery of Saint Oswin, the king and martyr;17 where, on the sixth day of the siege, he was severely wounded in the thigh, while fighting with his adversaries, many of whom were also wounded, and many slain. Some of his men were also wounded, but all were captured, and he himself took refuge in the church; from which, being dragged forth, he was placed in confinement.

In the meantime the Welch stormed the castle of Montgomery, and slew there some of the men of Hugh, earl of Shrewsbury; at which the king being exasperated, he immediately commanded an expedition to be directed against it; and, after the feast of Saint Michael, led an army into Wales, and there lost many men and horses. On his return thence, he ordered earl Robert to be taken to Bamborough, and his eyes to be put out, Unless his wife and his neighbour, Morel,18 would surrender the castle. Compelled by this necessity, they forth

14 * Bamborough. 15 "Bad neighbour."

is ii Novi castelli" must mean the fortress of Newcastle, which had been lately erected, and not the new castle of Malvoisin, although Holinshed seems so to understand it; the present passage will not, however, admit of that construction being put upon it. 17 At Tynemouth.

18 The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that this Morel was his steward. "Propinquus" may possibly mean " relative" here.

with surrendered the castle. The earl, being placed in close confinement, was led to Windsor; on which, Morell disclosed to the king the causes of the conspiracy taking place.

In the year 1096, William, bishop of Durham, died at Windsor, the royal palace, on the fourth day before the nones of January, being the second day of the week, but was buried at Durham, in the chapter-house there, on the northern side, having on the south the body of bishop Walcher; in the middle rests the body of Turgot, formerly bishop of the Scots, and prior of that church.

On the octave of the Epiphany, a council was held at Salisbury, and the king ordered William de Eu, who had been conquered in single combat, to be deprived of his eyes and his virility, and William Deandri, his sewer, his aunt's son, who had been privy to his treason, he ordered to be hanged; earl Odo of Champagne, who was the father of the above-named Stephen, and Philip, son of Soger earl of Shrewsbury, and some others, who had a guilty knowledge of the plot, he placed in confinement.

Di this year, pope Urban came into France, and a synod was held at Clermont,19 during Lent. He exhorted the Christians to set out for Jerusalem, for the purpose of waging war against the Turks, Saracens, Turcopoles,19* Persians, and other pagans, who at that period had overrun Jerusalem, and, having expelled the Christians, were in possession of Judsea. Immediately after his exhortation, at the same synod, Raymond, earl of Saint Gilles, and many others with him, assuming the emblem of the cross of Christ, engaged to undertake this pilgrimage in the cause of God, and to do what he had invited them to do: on hearing of which, other Christians in Italy, Germany, France and England, vying with each other, made preparations for the same expedition. The chiefs and leaders of these were Adimar, bishop of Puy, with a great number of other prelates, Peter the Hermit, Hugh the Great, brother to Philip, king of the Franks, Godfrey, duke of Lorraine, Stephen, count of Chartres, Robert, duke of Normandy, Robert, earl of Flanders, the two brothers of duke Godfrey,

19 This council at Clermont, in Auvergne, continued from the 18th to the 28th of November, A.d. 1095, and not in 1096.

19 * Turcopoles are supposed to have been the children of Christian mothers and Turkish fathers.

namely, Eustace, earl of Boulogne, and Baldwin, Raymond, the above-named earl, and Boamond, the son of Robert Guiscard; and with these followed an immense multitude of people of all languages.

On the seventeenth day before the calends of July, being the Lord's day, Sampson was consecrated bishop of Worcester, in the church of St. Paul, at London, by Anselm, the archbishop of Canterbury. After this, Robert, duke of Normandy, having determined to set out for Jerusalem with the rest, sent ambassadors to England, and requested his brother William to renew the treaty of peace between them, and to lend him ten thousand marks of silver and receive from him the dukedom of Normandy as a security; upon which, the king, being desirous to comply with his request, gave orders to the nobles of England that each one should, to the best of his ability, supply him with money with all possible haste. Accordingly, the bishops, abbats, and abbesses, broke up the golden and other ornaments of the churches; the earls, barons, and sheriffs stripped their soldiers and villains, and supplied the king with no small amount of gold and silver. In the month of September the king crossed the sea and made peace with his brother, giving him six thousand six hundred and sixtysix pounds of silver, and receiving from him Normandy in pledge.

In the year 1097, William, king of the English, returned to England at the season of Lent, and, after Easter, set out a second time20 for Wales, with an army of horse and foot, with the intention of destaging all persons of the male sex. However, he was unable to take or slay hardly any of them, but lost some of his own men, and a great number of horses. After this, he sent the Clito Edgar to Scotland, with an army, in order that, after expelling his uncle, Dufenald, who had usurped the throne, he might make his cousin Edgar, the son of king Malcolm, king in his stead.

On the thirteenth day before the calends of July, being Saturday, the Christians took the city of Nice. On the third day before the calends of October, and the fifteen days following, a comet appeared. Some persons at this period affirmed that they had seen in the heavens a wonderful sign, like a fire burning in the shape of a cross.

w This was his third expedition. See under the years 1094 and 1095,

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