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with the leave of king William; they also engaged that they would first deliver up the castle of Rochester. But, when Odo had come to Rochester with the king's men, who, on the king's behalf, were to receive possession of the castle, he was immediately placed in confinement together with them, "by those who were in the castle. Some persons assert that this was done by the cunning contrivance of the bishop. However, in this castle there were some valiant knights, and almost all the nobility of Normandy. There was also there, Eustace the Younger, earl of Boulogne, and many of the nobles of Flanders. When the king heard of this, he came with his army to Rochester, and l»id siege to the city; upon which, after a short time, those who were in it surrendered; and thus the bishop, who was almost a second king of England, irrecoverably lost his dignity. But, on arriving in Normandy, he immediately received charge of the whole province63 from duke Robert. William, bishop of Durham, and many others also, took their departure from England.

In the year 1089, Lanfranc, the archbishop of Canterbury, departed this life, on the ninth day before the calends of July, being the fifth day of the week. In the same year, on the third day before the ides of August, being Saturday, about the third hour of the day, there was a very great earthquake throughout England.

In the year 1090, William the Younger, king of England, with the intention of taking Normandy from his brother Robert and subjecting it to his own dominions, first took the castle of Walter de Saint Valery, and the castle which has the name of Albemarle, and, afterwards, several other castles, and placed knights in them, who committed ravages throughout Normandy. On seeing this, and discovering the faithlessness of his own people, duke Robert sent ambassadors to Philip, king of the Franks, his liege lord, who thereupon came into Normandy, and the king and the duke laid siege to one of tho castles which was garrisoned by his brother's troops. On this being told to king William, he secretly sent a considerable sum of money to king Philip, and, entreating him to desist from besieging it, succeeded in his object.

8:1 These words are succeeded by the following detached sentence, "cujus ordinem causae libellus in hoc descriptus ostendit." It is evidently corrupt, and capable of no exact translation; though it probably means, "the reasons for which will appear from what is previously stated."

In the year 1091, king William the Younger went over to Normandy in the month of February, with the design of taking it from his brother Robert; but, while he was there, peace was made between them by treaty, on condition that the duke should with good faith deliver up to the king the earldom of Eu,84 Feschamp, the abbey of Mount Saint Michael, and Keresburg,85 with the castles which had revolted from him, and that the king should reduce to subjection to the duke the province of Maine and the castles of Normandy, which were then making resistance to him. It was also agreed that the king should restore their lands in England to all the Normans who had los*i them by reason of their fidelity to the duke, and should also give to the duke as much land in England as was then arranged between them. In addition to this, they came to an understanding that if the duke should die without a son lawfully born in wedlock, the king should be his heir; and, in like manner, if the king should happen to die, the duke should be his heir. Twelve barons on the king's side and twelve on the duke's guaranteed this treaty by oath.

In the meantime, while these matters were being treated of, their brother Henry,86 having raised all the troops he could, with the aid of some of the monks in the place, took possession of Mount Saint Michael, laid waste the king's lands, and took prisoners some of his men, and spoiled others. In consequence of this, the king and the duke, assembling an army, besieged the Mount during the whole of Lent, and had frequent skirmishes, and lost some men and horses. But the king, growing wearied of the protracted siege, retired without coming to terms, and, shortly after, dispossessed the Clito Edgar of all the honors which the duke had conferred upon him, and banished him from Normandy.

In the meantime, in the month of May, Malcolm, king of the Scots, invaded Northumbria with a large army. If he could only find provisions, his object was to make further inroads and commit acts of violence upon the people of England. But God ordained it otherwise; and, therefore, he was impeded in his designs. The king, on hearing of this, re

* Called "Owe" in the text. 85 Cherbourg.

,9 Of course he would naturally be displeased at the little regard paid to his interests in the compact then being made.

turned to England with his brother Robert in the month of August, and shortly after, set out for Scotland with a considerable fleet and an army of horse, with the object of waging war against Malcolm; on coming to Durham, he restored bishop William to his see, three years on that very day after he had left it; that is to say, on the third day before the ides of September.

But before the king had reached Scotland, a short time previous to the feast of Saint Michael, nearly the whole of his fleet was lost, and many of his horse perished through hunger and cold; after which, Una Malcolm met him with his army in the province of Loidis.87 On seeing this, duke Robert sent for the Clito Edgar, whom the king had banished from Normandy, and who was then staying with the king of the Scots, and, by his assistance, made peace between the two kings, upon the understanding that Malcolm should pay homage to him, as he had paid homage to his father, and that king William should restore to Malcolm the twelve towns which he had possessed in England under his father, and pay yearly twelve golden marks. But the peace that was made between them lasted only a short time. The duke also reconciled the king to Edgar.

On the ides of October, being the fourth day of the week, a violent flash of lightning struck the tower of the church of Winchelcomb, and made a wide opening in the wall, close to the roof; it split asunder one of the beams, and giving a severe blow to the image of Christ,88 hurled the head to the ground, and broke the right thigh. The image, also, of Saint Mary, which stood near the cross, was struck by the flash, and fell to the ground; after which, there followed a great smoke, with an excessive stench, which filled the whole church and lasted until the monks of the place, chaunting psalms, had gone round the buildings of the monastery with holy water and incense, and relics of the Saints.

In addition to this, on the sixteenth day before the calends of November, being the sixth day of the week, a violent whirlwind, coming from the south, blew down more than six hundred houses in London, and a considerable number of churches. It attacked the church which is called Saint Mary at Arches, and killing two men there, lifted the roof with the rafters aloft, and after carrying it to and fro in the air, at length fixed six of B7 Leeds. 88 On a crucifix.

the rafters in the same order in which they had been originally inserted in the roof, so deep in the ground, that of some of them only the seventh, of some the eighth part, was visible; and yet they were seven or eight and twenty feet in length.

After this, the king returned from Northumbria through Mercia into Wessex, and kept the duke with him till nearly the Nativity of our Lord, but was not willing to fulfil the treaty that had been made between them. The duke being greatly annoyed at this, on the tenth day before the calends of January, returned to Normandy with the Clito Edgar.

At this period, according to the reports in England, there . were two so-called popes of Ro»e, who, disagreeing as to their right to the title, divided the church of God into two parties; these were Urban, who was formerly called Odo, bishop of Ostia, and Clement, whose former name was "Wibert, archbishop of Ravenna; this matter, not to speak of other parts of the world, had so greatly occupied the attention of the church of England for many years, that from the time that Gregory, also called Hildebrand, departed this life, up to the present period, it had refused to pay obedience or make submission to any pope; Italy and France, however, acknowledged Urban as the vicar of Saint Peter.

In the year 1092, the greater part of the city of London was destroyed by fire. On the nones of April, being the second day of the week, Osmund, bishop of Salisbury, with the assistance of Valcelline, bishop of Winchester, and of John, bishop of Bath, dedicated the church which he had built within the castle of Salisbury. Bishop Eemigius also, who, with the sanction of king William the Elder, had changed the seat of his bishopric from Dorchester91 to Lincoln, wished to dedicate the church which he had built there, and which was well worthy of the bishop's chair, as he perceived that the day of his death was close at hand. But Thomas, the archbishop of York, firmly opposed him, and asserted that the church was built in his province. King William the Younger, however, in consideration of a sum of money which Remigius gave him, gave orders to the bishops of nearly the whole of England to meet together on the seventh day before the ides of May and consecrate the church; but, two days before the time appointed,

91 In Oxfordshire.

by the secret dispensation of God, bishop Remigius departed from this world, and the dedication of the church stood over for the present. After this, the king set out for the province of Northumbria,and rebuilt the city which in the British language is called Carleil,92 and in Latin, Lugubalia, and erected a castle . there; for this city, with some others in those parts, had been destroyed two hundred years before, by the pagan Danes, and had remained desolate from that time until the present period.

In the year 1093, king William the Younger was attacked by a severe illness at a royal town which is called Alvestan, on which he repaired with all haste to Gloucester, and there lay ill throughout the.whole of Lent. Thinking that he should shortly die, at the suggestion of the barons, he promised the Almighty to correct his mode of living, no longer to sell churches or put them up for sale, but to protect them with his kingly power, to destroy unrighteous laws, and to enact righteous ones. The archbishopric of Canterbury, which he had kept in his own hands, he gave to Anselm, the abbat of Bee, who was then in England, and the bishopric of Lincoln to his chancellor, Robert, surnamed Bloet.

A new church was commenced to be built at Durham, on the third day before the calends of August, being the fifth day of the week, bishop William, and Malcolm, the king of the Scots, and the prior Turgot, on that day laying the first stone of the foundation. On the day of the feast of Saint Bartholomew the Apostle,93 Malcolm, the king of the Scots, came to Gloucester, to meet king William the Younger, as had been previously arranged between their ambassadors, in order that, according

92 Carlisle. Holinshed has the following remark upon a passage in Matthew of Westminster, "Here have I thought good to advertise you of an error in Matthew of Westminster, crept in either through misplacing the matter by means of some exemplifier, either else by the author's mistaking his account of years, as 1072 for 1092, referring the repairing of Carlisle unto William the Conqueror, at what time he made a journey against the Scots in the said year 1072. And yet not thus contented; to bewray the error more manifestly, he affirmetH that the king exchanged the earldom of Chester with Rafe or Ranulf de Micenis, alias Meschines, for the earldom of Carlisle, which the said Meschines held before, and had begun then to build and fortify that town; whereas it is certain that Ranulf de Meschines came to enjoy the earldom of Chester by way of inheritance." 93 V. r. The ides.

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