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tions, rents, exactions, or hospices,73 both as regards myself and my deans and archdeacons, as well as the vicars and servants of us all. I do also forbid, under penalty of excommunication, that any person shall annoy them or their clergy, upon any pretence whatever, or compel them to go to synods or chapters, unless they 6hall be willing so to do of their own accord. But if any one shall have any complaint against them or theirs, let him repair to the court of Saint Cuthbert at Durham, that he may there receive such redress as he is entitled to. For, all the liberties and dignities which I or my successors shall be entitled to in our own churches or in our lands, we do freely grant for ever unto them and Saint Cuthbert in all their churches and lands, and without any deceit or gainsaying, I do, on behalf of myself and my successors, confirm the free and quiet possession thereof."

In the year 1084, pope Hildebrand, who was also called Gregory, departed this life. William, king of the English, levied upon every hide of land throughout England the sum of 6ix shillings.

In the year 1085, Edmund, abbat of Pershore, a man of remarkable virtue, departed this life on the seventeenth day before the calends of July, being the Lord's day. In the same year, Canute, son of Sweyn, king of the Danes, prepared, with a strong fleet and the aid of his father-in-law, Robert, earl of Flanders, whose daughter he had married, to invade England; whereupon, king William, having levied many thousand soldiers throughout the whole of Gaul, foot and archers, and taking some from Normandy, in the autumn returned to England, and dispersing them throughout the whole kingdom, commanded the bishops, abbats, earls, barons, sheriffs, and royal bailiffs to supply them with provisions. But when he learned that his enemies were checked,73 he sent back part of his army, and part he retained with himself throughout the whole of the winter, and held his court at Gloucester during the Nativity of our Lord; in which place he gave bishoprics to his three chaplains, namely, that of London to Maurice, that of Thetford to William, and that of Chester to Robert.

n "Hospitio." A right on the part of certain persons to demand entertainment in religious houses.

73 Because there was a mutiny in the Danish fleet, which ended in the king being slain by bis soldiers.

In the year 1086, king William caused the whole of England to be described, of how much land each of his barons was possessed, how many knights' fees, how many carrucates, how many villains, how many animals, and even how much ready money, each person possessed, throughout the whole of his kingdom, beginning from the highest down to the lowest, and how much rent each property could return:71 the whole of the country being in a state of disturbance in consequence of the numerous murders occasioned thereby. After this, in the week of Pentecost, at Westminster, where he was holding his court, he knighted his son Henry, and shortly after ordered the archbishops, bishops, abbats, earls, barons, and sheriffs, with their soldiers, to meet him at Salisbury, on the calends of August; and on their coming thither, he compelled their knights to swear fealty to him against all men.

At this period, the Clito Edgar, having obtained leave of the king, passed over the sea with two hundred soldiers, and went to Apulia. His sister, Christiana, entered a monastery which has the name of Ramsey, and assumed the habit of a nun. In the same year there was a murrain among animals, and a great pestilence in the air.

In the year 1087, the relics of Saint Nicolas were transferred from Myra to the city of Bar. In this year, Aldwin, prior of Durham, departed this life. A raging fire consumed many cities, and the church of Saint Paul, together with the largest and best part of London.

On Saturday, the sixth day before the ides of July, the Danes, in a certain church, conferred the honor of martyrdom on their king, Canute. In this year, Stigand, bishop of Chichester, Scolland, abbat of Saint Augustine's, Alfy, abbat of Bath, and Turstine, abbat of Pershore, departed this life. In the same year, before the Assumption of Saint Mary, king William entered France with an army, and burned with fire a city which is called Mantes, and all the churches therein, and two recluses, and then returned into Normandy. But, upon his return, a dreadful pain in the intestines attacked him; and, becoming weaker and weaker every day, when, as his illness increased, he saw that the day of his death was approaching, he released from confinement his brother, Odo, the bishop of Bayeux, earls Morcar and Roger, Siward, surnamed Ji These returns were entered in what is called Doomsday-Book.

Barn, and Wulnoth, the brother of king Harold, whom he had kept in confinement from his childhood, and all besides whom he had imprisoned, either in Normandy or England. After this, he gave the kingdom of England to his son William, and, to his eldest son, Robert, who was then in exile in France, he left the dukedom of Normandy And then, being fortified with the heavenly viaticum,75 after having reigned over the English nation twenty years, ten months, and twentyeight days, he parted with his kingdom and his life, on the fifth day before the ides of September, and, having been there interred, rests at Caen, in the church of Saint Stephen the Proto-martyr, which he had built from the foundation, and amply endowed.


On this, his son, William, repaired to England with all haste, taking with him Morcar and Wulnoth, but, shortly after his arrival at Winchester, he consigned them to the same strict confinement as before; after which, on the sixth day before the calends of October, being the Lord's day, he was consecrated king at Westminster, by Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury. Then, returning to Winchester, he distributed the treasures of his father, as he himself had commanded, throughout England; that is to say, to some of the principal churches ten golden marks, to some six, and to some less. To each of the churches situate in country places76 he ordered five shillings to be given, and crosses, altars, shrines, text-books,77 candlesticks, chalices, pipes,78 and various ornaments, embellished with gold, silver,

75 The consecrated wafer, administered to the dying, "in articulo mortis."

76 The words are " in villis sitis." The allusion is to the parish churches throughout the country.

77 This seems the best translation for "textos," which means the book of the Gospels, which was generally adorned with gold and jewels, and kept in the treasury of the monastery, and laid on the altar on Saints'days and Sundays.

78 "Fistulas." Allusion is made to the pipes which (in the early centuries of the church, when the Holy Eucharist was administered to the laity in both kinds,) were used by the communicants for the purpose of sucking the wine out of the cup. The object of this seems to have been that, by the use of several pipes, more than one might partake of it at the same time.

and precious stones, to be distributed among the most deserving churches and the monasteries.

His brother Robert, also, on his return to Normandy, bounteously divided among the monasteries, churches, and the poor the treasures which he found, in behalf of the soul of his father; and, after having knighted them, allowed Dunecald,TM the son of Malcolm, king of the Scots, and Ulph, the son of Harold, the former king of the English, whom he had released from confinement, to depart.

In the year 1088, a great dissension arose among the nobles of England. For a portion of the Norman nobility was in favour of king William; but the other, and larger part espoused the cause of Robert duke of Normandy, and desired to invite him to govern the kingdom, and either deliver up William alive to his brother, or, putting him to death, deprive him of his kingdom. The chiefs in this execrable affair were Odo, bishop of Bayeux, who was also earl of Kent, Geoffrey, bishop of Constance, Robert, earl of Mortaigne,80 Roger, earl of Shrewsbury, and the chief men of eminence throughout the whole kingdom, with the exception of archbishop Lanfranc. This abominable deed they privately discussed during Lent, and, immediately after Easter, began to ravage the country each in his own neighbourhood, and plunder and pillage it, at the same time providing their castles with fortifications and provisions. Geoffrey, bishop of Constance, and Robert de Mowbray repaired to Bristol, where they had a very strong castle, and laid waste all the country as far as the place which is called Bathan.81

The nobles also of Hereford and Shrewsbury, with a multitude of people from Wales, proceeded as far as Worcester, laying waste and destroying with fire everything before them. They intended, also, to have taken the church and the castle, which latter was at that period entrusted to the charge of the venerable bishop Wulstan. When the bishop heard of this he was greatly distressed, and, considering what plan he should adopt, had recourse to his God, and entreated Him to look down upon His church and His people, thus oppressed by their enemies. While he was meditating upon these things, his household sallied forth from the castle, and took and slew five hundred of them, and put the rest to flight.

?9 V. r. Duncan. 60 Half-brother of William the First. 81 Bath.

Roger Bigot entered the castle of Norwich, and spread devastation throughout the country.82 Bishop Odo, through whom these evils had arisen, proceeded into Kent, and laid waste the royal vills, and ravaged the lands of all those who preserved their fealty to the king and gained possession of the castle of Bochester.

On hearing of these things, the king caused the English to be assembled together, and, pointing out to them the treachery of the Normans, entreated them to give him their assistance, on condition that, if they should prove faithful to him in this emergency, he would grant them better laws, such as they should make choice of; he also forbade all unjust taxes, and returned to all their woods and right of venison; but, whatever he promised, he soon withdrew. The English however, then assisted him faithfully. Accordingly, the king assembled his army for marching on Rochester, where he supposed his uncle, bishop Odo, was; but, when they came to Tunbridge, they found the castle closely shut against the king. However, the English, boldly storming it, destroyed the whole castle, and those who were in it surrendered to the king. After this, the king with his army directed his course towards the castle of Pevensey; for bishop Odo had withdrawn from Rochester and fled to that castle, whither the king, with a large army, followed him, and besieged the castle for six entire weeks.

While these things were going on in England, Robert, duke of Normandy, had assembled a considerable force, and was preparing to send it to England, intending shortly to follow, as though making sure of England through the agency of bishop Odo and the others, who were his partisans there. But William the Younger had now taken measures of defence by sea with his cruisers, which slew many of them on their passage to England, and sank others at sea; so much so, that no man can tell the number of those who perished.

During the period of these transactions at sea, bishop Odo, and those who were with him, being compelled by hunger, surrendered the castle of Pevensey, and promised, on oath, that they would leave England and not enter it again, except

82 The words after "Norwich" here arc adopted from the AngloSaxon Chronicle; as the text has " et omnes vicit in malum," words which admit of no sense whatever, and are clearly erroneous.

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