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However, they came at first with a few only ; but when they knew how the matter stood, they sent through their earldoms swift messengers on horseback, and collected a large army. In like manner, earl Rodulph, son of Goda, sister of king Edward, collected as many as he could in his earldom. In the meantime, Godwin and his sons, after the nativity of Saint Mary, coming with their forces into the province of Gloucester, pitched their camp at a place which is called Langeto, and sending ambassadors to the king at Gloucester, under the threat of making war, demanded the surrender of earl Eustace, and his allies as well, both Normans and men of Boulogne, who had taken possession of the castle on the hill of Dover.
In consequence of this, the king was for the moment greatly alarmed, and, being afflicted with great anguish, was utterly at a loss to know what to do ; but when he understood that the army earls Siward, Leofric, and Rodulph were approaching, he determinedly made answer that he would on no account give up Eustace and the others who were demanded; on hearing which, the messengers returned empty-handed. After their departure the army entered Gloucester, being prepared for battle with such hostile and resolute spirit, that they wished to engage immediately with earl Godwin's army, if the king would permit them. But, inasmuch as the best men in all England were assembled together on his side and theirs, it seemed to earl Leofric and some others, to be the more prudent part not to begin a battle with their fellow-countrymen; but they proposed that, exchanging hostages, the king and Godwin should, on a day named, meet at London for a conference.
This counsel being approved of, and messages interchanged, and hostages given and received, the earl returned into Wessex; but the king assembled a more numerous army from the whole of Mercia and Northumbria, and led it with him to London. On the other hand, Godwin and his sons came to Southweorc,98 with a great multitude of the men of Wessex; but, as his army had gradually diminished, he did not dare to come to the conference with the king, but on the approach of night, took to flight. Wherefore, next morning, the king in council, and by the unanimous consent of his army, pronounced sentence of banishment against him and his five sons; on which he, with his wife Githa, and Tosti, » Southwark.
with his wife Juthitha, daughter of Baldwin, earl of Flanders, and two other of his sons, Sweyn and Girth, repaired to Tornege, where his ships were in readiness. Hastily placing on board as much gold and silver and other precious things as they were able to carry, and embarking with all speed, they directed their course to Baldwin, earl of Flanders. Moreover, Harold and Leofwin, his sons, going to Bristol, embarked on board a ship which their brother Sweyn had provided for himself, and crossed over to Ireland. The king, on account of the anger which he entertained against her father Godwin, repudiated queen Edgitha, and sent her ignominiously with a single attendant to Werewell, where he gave her into the custody of the abbess.
After these things had thus happened, William, duke of the Normans, with a multitude of his subjects, came to England, and, with his attendants, was honorably entertained by king Edward, who afterwards dismissed him, on his return to Normandy, with great and numerous presents.
In the year 1052, Elfgiva, or Emma, the former queen, and wife of kings Egelred and Canute, departed this life at Winchester, on the second day before the nones of March, and was buried there. In the same year, Griffin, king of Wales, ravaged a great part of the province of Hereford; the people of the province, and a considerable number of Normans, went out from the castle against him, but, after slaying many of them, he gained the victory, and carried off with him considerable spoil. This battle was fought on the same day that, thirteen years before, the Welch had slain Edwin, the brother of earl Leofric.
Shortly after this, earl Harold and his brother Leofwin returned from Ireland, and entering the mouth of the Severn with a great number of ships, landed at the confines of Somerset and Devon, and laid waste many towns and fields in those parts. Against them a great number of the people of Somerset and Devon went out, but Harold defeated them, slaying more than thirty noble thanes of their number, together with many others; after which he returned to his ships with the spoil, and then sailed round Penwithsteort." Upon this, king Edward, with all expedition, sent forty ships, supplied with provisions and picked soldiers, to the port of Sandwich, and ordered them to 99 Land's End.
await the approach of earl Godwin, and he on the look-out; but, in spite of this, unknown to them all, returning with a few ships, he landed in Kent, and secretly sending messengers, enticed to his assistance the people of Kent, and afterwards the people of Sussex, Essex, Surrey, and all the mariners of Hastings and of all the parts near the sea-shore, besides some others; all these with one voice declared that they were ready to live or die for him.
When this became known to the king's fleet that lay at the port of Sandwich, it set out in pursuit of him, on which he took to flight, and escaped, concealing himself in whatever place he could. But the king's forces returned to the port of Sandwich, and from there repaired to London. On learning this, earl Godwin returned to the Isle of Wight, and sailed near the shore until his sons Harold and Leofwin came with their fleet; and when they had met they desisted from plunder and, rapine, only, when necessity demanded it, taking provisions for their troops. Enticing to their assistance all the people they could in the vicinity of the sea-shore and in other places, and picking up all the mariners they met with, they steered their course towards the port of Sandwich, their arrival at which place was reported to king Edward, who was at this period staying at London. Despatching messengers with all speed, he sent word to all who had not revolted from him, that they must come to his assistance with the greatest haste; but being very slow in their movements, they did not come in time.
Tn the meantime, earl Godwin coming up the Thames with his fleet against the tide, on the day of the exaltation of the Holy Cross, being the second day of the week, came to Southweorc,1 and waited there until flood-tide. Meanwhile, by means of messengers, he convened certain of the citizens of London whom he had previously brought over by various promises, and caused nearly all of them to wish entirely as he would have them. After this, all things being arranged and set in order, on the flood-tide coming, with all speed they heaved their anchors, and no one on the bridge opposing them, sailed up the river close to the south shore. The land forces also came, and putting themselves in battle array on the bank of the river, presented a dense and terrible 2 Southwark.
line of battle; after which, the fleet turned towards the north shore, as it was its intention to surround the king's fleet. For the king had both a fleet and a numerous land army; but because both with the king and with Godwin there were very few who had any spirit (so greatly did almost all the English abhor fighting against their own kindred and fellow-countrymen), the consequence was, that all the more prudent men on either side, effecting a reconciliation between the king and the earl, bade the army lay aside their arms. The following morning the king held a council, and fully restored to Godwin and his wife and all his sons, with the exception of Sweyn, their former honors.
He, being moved with penitence, because, as previously mentioned, he had slain his cousin Beorn, journeyed from Flanders to Jerusalem, barefoot, and on his return thence, having contracted a disease from the excessive cold, died in Lycia. Edgitha, also, his queen, the daughter of the earl, the king received with due honor, and restored her to her former dignity.
Peace and concord being thus established, to all the people they promised good hvfljs, and banished all the Normans who had instituted unjust ones, and had pronounced unjust judgments, and had given the king bad counsel against the English. Some few, however, namely, Robert Le Dragon, and his son-in-law, Richard the son of Scrobi, Alfred, the king's master of the horse, Aufrid, surnamed Ceokesfot, and some others whom the king loved more than the rest, and who had preserved their fidelity to him and all the people, they allowed to remain in England, But Robert, the archbishop of Canterbury, William, the bishop of London, and Ulph, the bishop of Lincoln, with difficulty escaping with their Normans, crossed the sea; however, on account of his virtues, William was shortly after recalled and reinstated in his bishopric.
Osborn, however, surnamed Pentecost, and his companion, Hugh, surrendered their castles, and, with the permission of earl Leofric, passing through his earldom, repaired to Scotland, where they were received by Machetad,2 king of the Scots. In the same year, on the night of the feast of Saint Thomas the Apostle, there was a wind so strong and violent that it blew down many churches and houses, and broke numberless trees, or tore them up by the roots.
5 The king who is move generally known as Macbeth.
In the year 1053, the brother of Griffin, king of South Wales, whose name was Rees, on account of the frequent depredations which he had committed, was slain by command of king Edward, at a place called Bulendun,3 and his head was brought to the king at Gloucester, on the vigil of the Epiphany. In the same year, when the second day of the festival of Easter was being celebrated, a dreadful calamity befel earl Godwin at Winchester, while, as usual, he was sitting at table with the king. For, being suddenly attacked by a fatal malady, he sank down on his seat bereft of speech: on seeing which, his sons, Harold, Tosti, and Girth, carried him into the king's chamber, hoping that, after a little while, he would recover from the attack; but he, being deprived of all strength, departed this life on the fifth day after, being the seventeenth day before the calends oi May, and was buried in the old monastery there. He was succeeded in the dukedom by his son Harold, whose earldom was given to Algar, the son of earl Leofric.
In the year 1054, Siward, the valiant earl of Northumbria, by command of king Edward, invaded Scotland, with both an army of horse and a strong fleet, and fought a battle with Hachetad, king of the Scots; and, after many thousands of the Scots, and all the Normans, of whom mention has been made above, were slain, put him to flight, and gave the crown to Malcolm, son of the king of the Cumbrians, as king Edward had commanded. But in this battle his own son,4 and many of the English and Danes, were slain.
On the death of Godwin, the abbat of Winchelcomb, Aired, bishop of Worcester, on the feast of Saint Kenelm, appointed abbat in his room Godric, the son of Godman, the king's chaplain. After this, the same bishop was dispatched on an embassy, with costly presents, to the emperor; by whom, and Herman, archbishop of Cologne, he was entertained with great honor, and remained with them a whole year; on the king's behalf, he also suggested to the emperor to send ambassadors to Hungary, and bring back his cousin, the son of king Edmund Ironside, and procure his return to England.
In the year 1055, Siward, earl of Northumbria, died at 3 Bullingdon. 4 Osborn.