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hostages being given on either side, the two kings met at a place which is called Deerhurst; Edmund pitched his camp with his men on the western bank of the Severn, while Canute encamped with his on the eastern side.

Upon this, the two kings were conveyed in boats63 to the island called Olanege,64 which is situate in the middle of the river; where65 peace, friendship, and brotherhood having been established by pledge and by oath, the kingdom was divided. Then, after having exchanged arms and clothes, the tribute being agreed upon which should be paid to the fleet, they separated from each other. The Danes, however, returned to their ships with the spoil which they had collected, and the citizens of London made peace with them, paying a price for it, and allowing them to winter there.

After these things, in the fifteenth year of the indiction, about the time of the feast of Saint Andrew the Apostle, king Edmund Ironside died at London,66 but was buried at Glastonbury, with his grandfather, king Edgar the Peaceful. After his death, king Canute ordered all the bishops and chieftains, and all the nobles and principal men of the English nation, to be assembled at London. When these had come before him, as though he did not know it, he cunningly asked those who had acted as witnesses between him and king Edmund when they made the treaty of friendship and partition of the kingdom between them, to what effect he and king Edmund had expressed themselves about the brothers and sons of the latter, as to whether it should be allowed the same to reign over the kingdom of Wessex after their father, in case Edmund should die while he was still living : on which they began to say that, beyond a doubt, they were quite certain that king Edmund neither living nor dying had bespoken any portion of the kingdom for his brothers. But, as to his sons, they said that they knew this, that king Edmund wished Canute to be their guardian and protector, until they should be of fit age to reign.

63 "Trabarite," the word used in the text, were boats like canoes, made out of a single piece of wood. 64 Olney.

66 According to Roger of Wendover and other historians, Edmund Ironside and Canute first engaged there in single combat.

65 Roger of Wendover says at Oxford, where he was barbarously murdered by the sou of Edric Streoua.

But they, God testifying thereto, gave false testimony and treacherously lied, thinking both that Canute would prove more kind to them by reason of their falsehoods, and that they should gain great rewards from him; whereas, not long after, some of these false witnesses were slain by the same king. After having put the above question, king Canute received the oaths of fealty from the nobles above-mentioned; on which they swore to him that they willingly chose him for their king, and would readily obey him, and pay tribute to his army; and having received pledges from his bare hand, together with the oaths of the principal men among the Danes, they utterly disregarded. the brothers and sons of king Edmund, and declared that they should not be their kings.

Now, one of the above-mentioned Clito's was Edwin the Excellent, a most revered brother of king Edmund, whom on that occasion, with most wicked counsels, they pronounced deserving of banishment. "When, therefore, Canute had listened to the adulation of the persons above-mentioned, and the contempt in which they held Edwin, rejoicing, he entered his chamber, and calling to him the perfidious duke Edric, inquired of him in what way he might be able to beguile Edwin to the risk of his life; on which Edric made answer, that he knew a certain man named Athelward, who could very easily put him to death, with whom he should be able to have some conversation, and to whom he would offer a very considerable reward.

However, on learning the name of the man, the king cunningly sent for him, and said: "Thus and thus has duke Edric informed me, saying that you are able to beguile the Clito Edwin, so that he may be slain; do you only assent to my proposal, and obtain for me his head, and you shall enjoy all the honors and dignities of your forefathers, and shall be dearer to me than my own born brother." On this, he made answer that he was willing to seek for him in order that he might be slain, if in any way he could effect it: but, in reality, he did not wish to kill him at present, but, by way of excuse, made this promise: he was a person sprung from a most noble English family.

In this year king Canute obtained the rule of the whole of England, and divided it into four parts; Wessex he took for himself, East Anglia he gave to earl Turkill, Mercia to the perfidious duke Edric, and Northumbria to earl Eiric. He also made a treaty with the nobles and all the people, and they established by oath a firm friendship between them, and, laying them aside, set at rest all ancient enmities. Then, by the counsel of the perfidious duke Edric, king Canute banished the Clito Edwin, the brother of king Edmund, and Edwin,67 who was styled "the King of the Churls;" but this Edwin was reconciled to the king. The Clito Edwin, however, being deceived by the treachery of those whom he had hitherto deemed to be most friendly disposed to him, at the request and entreaty of king Canute, was, the sameyear, without guilt on his part, put to death.

Edric also gave him this advice, that he should put to death the younger Clito's, Edward and Edmund, the sons of king Edmund; but as it seemed to him a great disgrace for them to be put to death in England, after the lapse of a short time he sent them to the king of Sweden to be slain; he however, although there was a treaty between them, would by no means . assent to his request, but sent them, for the preservation of their lives, to Salomon, king of the Hungarians, to be brought up; and one of them, namely, Edmund, in process of time, ended his life there. But Edward received in marriage Agatha, the daughter of the emperor, by whom he had Margaret, afterwards queen of the Scots, Christina, a virgin, who became a nun, and the Clito Edgar.

In the month of July, king Canute took to wife queen Emma, the widow of king Egefred, by whom he had a son, named Hardicanute, afterwards king, and a daughter, named Gunhilda, who was afterwards married to Henry, the emperor of the Romans.

In the year 1018, at the Feast of the Nativity of our Lord, while Canute was in London, he ordered the perfidious duke Edric Streona to be slain in his palace, because he feared lest he should be on some occasion betrayed by his treachery, just as his former masters Egelred and Edmund had been frequently betrayed. He also ordered his body to be thrown over the walls of the city, and to be cast out without burial; together with him duke Norman, the son of duke Leofwin, and brother of earl Leofric, Ethelward, the son of duke Engelmar, and Brithric, the son of Elphege, earl of Devonshire, were slain without any guilt on their parts. In this year, by the whole of England, seventy-two pounds, and by London, four hundred and ten pounds,88 were paid to the army of the Danes. Aldun, 67 Properly Edwy.

■ These numbers are manifestly wrong; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

bishop of Durham, departed this life, and a great battle was fought between the English and the Scots at Carre.69 The English and the Danes came to an understanding at Oxford as to the observance of the laws of king Edgar.

In the year 1019, Canute, king of the English and of the Danes, crossed to Denmark, and remained there throughout the whole of the winter.

In the year 1020, king Canute returned to England, and at the festival of Easter held a great council at Cirencester. Edmund was appointed to the see of Durham, and Living, archbishop of Canterbury, departing this life, was succeeded by Agelnoth, who was called the Good, the son of Agelmar, a nobleman. In the same year, the church which king Canute and earl Turketel had built on the hill which is called Assendun,TM was dedicated in their presence with great honor and pomp by Wulstan, the archbishop of York, and many other bishops.

Da the year 1021, Canute, king of the English and of the Danes, before the feast of Saint Martin, expelled the earl Turkill so often mentioned, together with his wife, Egitha, from England. Algar, the bishop of East Anglia, departed this life, and was succeeded by Alfwin.

In the year 1022, Agelnoth, the archbishop of Canterbury, went to Rome, and being received by pope Benedict with great honor, the pall was given to him.

In the year 1023, the body of Saint Elphege the Martyr was transferred from London to Canterbury. Wulstan, the archbishop of York, departed this life at York, on the day before the calends of July, being tha third day of the week, but his body was carried to Ely, and there buried. He was succeeded by Alfric, the prior of Winchester.

In the year 1026, Alfric, the archbishop of York, went to Rome, and received the pall from pope John. Richard, the second duke of Normandy, departed this life; and was succeeded by Richard the Third, who died in the same year, being succeeded by his brother Robert.

In the year 1027, it having been intimated to the king of the English and of the Danes that the people of .Norway greatly despised their king, Olaf, for his simplicity, mildness, justice

states the amount paid by the whole of England as 72.000 pounds, and that paid by the city of London, 10,500. *• Probably Carron. 10 Ashendon, in Essex.

and piety, he sent to certain of them a great quantity of gold and silver, begging them, with many intreaties, that, having deposed and expelled him, they would become subject to him, and permit him to reign over them. Receiving, with great avidity, what he sent them, they ordered word to be sent him, that they were ready to receive him whenever he chose to come.

In the year 1028, Canute, king of the English and of the Danes, crossing over to Norway with fifty large ships, expelled king Olaf, and rendered it subject to himself.

In the year 1029, Canute, king of the English, of the Danes, and of the Norwegians, returned to England; and shortly after sent into exile Hacun, a Danish earl, on the pretext that he was sending him on an embassy, as he feared lest he should be deprived of his life by him. He was married to a noble woman, Gunhilda, the daughter of his own sister and of Wertgeorn, king of the Windi.

In the year 1030, the above-named earl Hacun perished at sea; some say that he was slain at this period in the island of Orkney. Saint Olaf, the king and martyr, son of Harold, king of Norway, whom king Canute had expelled, returning to Norway, was unrighteously slain by the Norwegians.

In the year 1031, Canute, king of the English, of the Danes, and of the Norwegians, set out with great state from Denmark for Rome, and presented to Saint Peter, the chief of the Apostles, vast gifts of gold and silver and other precious things, and obtained, at his request, from pope John, that the school of the English at Rome should be exempt from all tax and tribute; also, in going and returning he bestowed bounteous alms on the poor, and put an end to many barriers on the road where toll was exacted from strangers, by payment of a large sum of money; before the tomb of the Apostles he also made a vow to amend his life and manners.

In the year 1032, the church of Saint Edmund, the king and martyr, was dedicated. Conflagrations, almost unextinguishable, ravaged many places throughout England. Elphege, the bishop of Winchester, departed this life, and was succeeded by Elfwyn, the king's priest.

In the year 1033, died Leolf, bishop of the Wiccii,72 a man of great piety and modesty, at the episcopal town of

TM Worcester. f

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