Understanding Virtual Reality: Interface, Application, and Design

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Morgan Kaufmann, 2003 - 582 páginas


Understanding Virtual Reality arrives at a time when the technologies behind virtual reality have advanced to the point that it is possible to develop and deploy meaningful, productive virtual reality applications. The aim of this thorough, accessible exploration is to help you take advantage of this moment, equipping you with the understanding needed to identify and prepare for ways VR can be used in your field, whatever your field may be.


By approaching VR as a communications medium, the authors have created a resource that will remain relevant even as the underlying technologies evolve. You get a history of VR, along with a good look at systems currently in use. However, the focus remains squarely on the application of VR and the many issues that arise in the application design and implementation, including hardware requirements, system integration, interaction techniques, and usability. This book also counters both exaggerated claims for VR and the view that would reduce it to entertainment, citing dozens of real-world examples from many different fields and presenting (in a series of appendices) four in-depth application case studies.

* Substantive, illuminating coverage designed for technical and business readers and well-suited to the classroom.
* Examines VR's constituent technologies, drawn from visualization, representation, graphics, human-computer interaction, and other fields, and explains how they are being united in cohesive VR systems.
* Via a companion Web site, provides additional case studies, tutorials, instructional materials, and a link to an open-source VR programming system.

 

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Índice

WHAT IS VIRTUAL REALITY?
3
Immersion
7
Telepresence
20
Chapter Summary
36
part 11
39
A Virtual World
40
Suitability of Virtual Worlds for a Particular Medium
42
How Are Ideas Transmitted?
43
Computer Graphics System Requirements
245
Aural Rendering Systems
252
SoundGeneration Hardware
258
Haptic Rendering Systems
266
Haptic Rendering Techniques
272
Internal Computer Representation Haptic Formats
277
VR Haptic Interface Software
278
Chapter Summary chapter 6
280

Common Issues of Human Communication Media
49
What Is Special about Virtual Reality? 50 Authorship Versus Creatorship
50
The Interface to the Virtual World
51
Language
53
Immotive Versus Interactive
58
Interactivity Participation and Multipresence
59
Directed and Undirected Narratives
61
Form and Genre
64
Experience Versus Information
65
The Role of Artists and Technologists
68
Chapter Summary
69
part 11
70
VIRTUAL REALITY SYSTEMS
71
Interface to the Virtual WorldInput
74
User Monitoring User Input to the Virtual World 77 Position Tracking
77
Body Tracking
88
Other Physical Input Devices
95
World Monitoring Dynamic Input to the Virtual World 107 Persistent Virtual Worlds
107
Bringing the Real World Into the Virtual World
108
Chapter Summary
111
Interface to the Virtual WorldOutput
114
Properties of Visual Displays
121
Monitorbasedor FishtankVR
140
Headbased
151
Handheld
160
Properties of Aural Displays
167
Headbased Aural DisplaysHeadphones
174
Properties of Haptic Displays
180
Tactile Haptic Displays
187
Robotically Operated Shape Displays
195
Other Senses
202
Rendering the Virtual World
205
Human Perception
211
Semiotics
217
Aural Representation in
225
Features of Haptics
231
Rendering Complex Visual Scenes
238
Interacting with the Virtual World
283
User Interface Metaphors
284
Manipulation Navigation and Communication 286 Manipulating a Virtual World 286 Manipulation Methods
286
Properties of Manipulation
293
Selection
310
Manipulation Operations
325
Manipulation Summary 332 Navigating in a Virtual World
332
Wayfinding
333
Travel
343
Navigation Summary
360
Interacting with Others
362
Shared Experience
363
Collaborative Interaction
368
Interacting with the VR System Metacommands
376
Chapter Summary chapter 7
378
The Virtual Reality Experience 381 Immersion 381 PhysicalSensory Immersion
381
Mental Immersion
382
The Role of Realism in Immersion
383
Point of View
390
Venue
394
Physics 399 Types of Virtual World Physics
399
User Interaction with the World Physics
403
SimulationMathematical Model
404
Objects
410
part
417
Creating a VR Application
418
Design with the System in Mind
424
Document Deploy and Evaluate the Experience
432
The Future of Virtual Reality
437
Trends
443
Input Technologies
452
THE APPENDICES
458
B Crumbs A Tool for Scientific Visualization
483
References
541
Index
557
About the Authors
581
Página de créditos

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Sobre el autor (2003)

William R. Sherman is a member of the Indiana University Advanced Visualization Lab, where he leads efforts in Scientific Visualization and Virtual Reality. He also teaches undergraduate and graduate courses on VR and Visualization, which he has done for two decades, including at the University of Nevada, Reno (UVR), and at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC).

Previously he founded the Center for Advanced Visualization, Computation and Modeling (CAVCaM) at the Desert Research Institute (DRI), where he led the VR and Visualization efforts, including overseeing the installation of a FLEX CAVE-style VR system as well as a 6-sided CAVE system. Prior to DRI, he led the virtual reality effort at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at UIUC, working with the Electronic Visualization Lab to install and operate the second CAVE VR system.

He has authored several book chapters and papers on the topics of scientific visualization and virtual reality, and has organized and led "bootcamps" on immersive visualization in collaboration with the Idaho National Lab and Kitware Inc. Sherman is the architect of the FreeVR VR integration library. He has attended every single IEEE Virtual Reality conference since 1995, and was chair of the 2008 conference.

Dr. Alan B. Craig is an independent consultant in Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Visualization, and High Performance Computing. Prior to this role, he contributed much to these fields during his thirty-year career at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) as a Research Scientist at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and as Senior Associate Director for Human-Computer Interaction at the Institute for Computing in Humanities, Arts, and Social Science (I-CHASS). Among his other consulting roles, he is currently engaged with the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE).

Dr. Craig has been called upon to speak as an expert in VR and AR at countless worldwide events and continues to speak at various venues. He has taught classes related to VR and AR online as well as onsite at universities, companies, and high school campuses. Dr. Craig has worked with government and industry entities regarding VR and AR applications. He has been interviewed by numerous publications, television, and news outlets.

In addition to Understanding Virtual Reality (with William R. Sherman) he also authored Developing Virtual Reality Applications (with William R. Sherman and Jeffrey D. Will) and Understanding Augmented Reality. Additionally, he has written multiple book chapters and articles. He has developed many virtual reality and augmented reality applications in content areas ranging from archaeology to zoology. He also teaches and advises on related topics. His primary focus has been on the use of virtual reality and augmented reality in educational applications and his work centers on the continuum between the physical and the digital.
He holds three patents.

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