Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the American Industrial Enterprise

Portada
Beard Books, 2003 - 463 páginas
2 Reseñas
Investigates the changing strategy and structure of the large industrial enterprise in the United States
 

Comentarios de usuarios - Escribir una reseña

Reseña de usuario - Marcar como inadecuado

EL DESCUBRIDOR DE LA ESTRATEGIA
Este libro de 1962 está próximo a cumplir 50 años en 2012 y hay pocos textos en la historia de la gestión que aguanten un examen tan prolongado. Desgraciadamente hoy
los textos de gestión (especialmente de los llamados "gurus") tienen una vida mucho más breve, lo que no deja de ser un indicativo tenebroso. En esta obra de "Strategy and Structure", Alfred Chandler hace varias cosas de gran calado: (1) porque se permite un ejercicio académico, hasta entonces inédito, de escribir una historia comparada sobre cómo diferentes organizaciones ejecutan una misma actividad; (2) porque escoge la administración (hoy la llamaríamos "gestión") como esa actividad a ser historiada comparativamente en diferentes empresas, y por ello define al paso qué es la gestión con extraordinaria sencillez y claridad; (3) porque centra lo esencial de la gestión en la dualidad entre estrategia y estructura, introduciendo así (¡nada más y nada menos!) la palabra "estrategia" en el ámbito de la gestión; y (4) porque atribuye a la estrategia la cualidad anterior e independiente que condiciona luego a la estructura, posterior y dependiente, formulando la brevísima tesis "structure follows strategy", esto es, que la estructura se deriva de la estrategia.
El libro tuvo un efecto demoledor. De la ley de Chandler se derivaba que la gestión dejaba de ser simplemente una teoría de la organización, vinculada a la estructura, a la concepción y gestión de estructuras humanas, para pasar a ser una tensión entre estrategia y estructura. La estructura no sólo no era el único tema sino que era la variable dependiente de la ecuación. La estrategia era el nuevo factor independiente. Y todo ello extraido de un minucioso estudio de historia comparada por confrontación entre cuatro excelentes grandes empresas americanas en sus momentos de expansión internacional: la química DuPont, la industria del automóvil General Motors, la petrolera Standard Oil de los Rockefeller y los grandes almacenes Sears.
No deja de ser curioso que el padre de la estrategia en la gestión sea este muy cultivado y longevo historiador, fallecido en 2007, distinguido promotor del Business History Group en el seno de Harvard Business School. De ahí luego la eclosión del Business Policy Group también en Harvard a principios de los 70s, cuyo último valedor es nada menos que Michael Porter, y la universalización por todo el mundo de que la estrategia debía ser el foco (incluso académico) de la gestión.
El brevísimo Prólogo es de lectura imprescindible. Una joya maestra. Enjoy.
 

Índice

Wording Out the New Structure
216
Some Final Considerations
221
SEARS ROEBUCK AND COMPANYDECENTRALIZATION PLANNED AND UNPLANNED
225
Initial Strategy and Structure
226
The New Strategy
233
Structural Strains Created by the New Strategy
237
Abortive Decentralization
241
The Frazer Committee
242

Creating the Multidepartmental Structure
57
Structural Modifications 19031919
62
Further Centralization 1919
67
The Strategy of D1versificat1on
78
Initial Steps Toward Diversification
79
Intensified Pressures for Diversification
83
The Final Definition of the Strategy of Diversification
88
New Structure for the New Strategy
91
New Problems Created by New Strategy
92
The Problems Analyzed
94
A New Structure Proposed and Rejected
96
A Compromise Structure Adopted
100
Crisis and the Acceptance of the Multidivisional Structure
104
GENERAL MOTORSCREATING THE GENERAL OFFICE
114
The Sources of Durants Strategy
115
The Creation of General Motors
118
The Storrow Regime
120
Durants Return and Renewed Expansion and Integration
122
Du Pont Contributions to Durants Organization
125
The Crisis of 1920
128
The Sloan Structure
130
The Organization Study
133
Minor Modifications
140
Putt1ng the New Structure 1nto Operat1on
142
The Development of Statistical and Financial Controls
145
Defining the Role of the Advisory Staff
153
The Role of the Executive Committee
157
The Finished Structure
158
and du Pont
161
STANDARD OIL COMPANY NEW JERSEY AD HOC REORGANIZATION
163
Structure and Strategy before 1925
164
The Strategy of Vertical Integration and Continued Expansion
170
Vertical Integration and the Creation of New Functional Departments
172
Expansion and the Older Departments
175
The Growth of Staff Departments
177
The Board
181
Initial Awareness of Structural Weaknesses
182
The In1t1al Reorgan1zat1on 19251926
185
Teagles Troubles
186
The 1925 Program
188
The Coordination Department and Committee
189
The Budget Department and Committee
193
Reorganizing the Marketing Department
196
Reorganizing the Manufacturing Department
199
The Creat1on of the Mult1d1vis1onal Decentral1zed Structure
205
The 1927 Changes
208
The Committees Proposals
243
Carrying Out the Committees Proposals
249
Frazer Reviews the New Structure
252
Continuing Conflict and Resulting Proposals
253
The Territorial Organization Scrapped
260
Evolut1onary Decentral1zat1on
261
Decentralization of the Retail Organization
265
The Growth of Local Regional Administrative Units
267
The Return to the Territorial Organization
268
The Final Structure
276
ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATIONA COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
283
The Adaptive Response
284
Building the Functional Departments
285
Building the Central Office
290
The Creat1ve Innovat1on
299
The Process of Innovation
303
The Significance of the Innovation
309
Organ1zat1onal Innovators
314
An Organization Builders Personality and Training
315
Sources of Information
320
THE SPREAD OF THE MULTI DIVISIONAL STRUCTURE
324
Industr1es Not Accept1ng the New Structure
326
Copper and Nickel
327
Steel
331
Aluminum
337
Materials
340
Industr1es Part1ally Accept1ng the New Structure
342
Processors of Agricultural Products
344
Rubber
350
Petroleum
352
Industr1es W1dely Accept1ng the New Structure
362
Electrical and Electronics
363
Power Machinery and Automobiles
370
Chemicals
374
Var1at1ons on Structural Chance
378
Summary of the Process of Structural Change within the Enterprise
380
CONCLUSIONCHAPTERS IN THE HISTORY OF THE GREAT INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE
383
The First Chapter Accumulating Resources
386
The Second Chapter Rationalizing the Use of Resources
387
The Third Chapter Continued Growth
390
The Fourth Chapter Rationalizing the Use of Expanding Resources
393
NOTES
397
NOTES
399
INDEX
455
Página de créditos

Otras ediciones - Ver todo

Términos y frases comunes

Pasajes populares

Página 13 - Strategy can be defined as the determination of the basic long-term goals and objectives of an enterprise, and the adoption of courses of action and the allocation of resources necessary for carrying out these goals.
Página 25 - house" had its storage plant and its own marketing organization. The latter included outlets in major towns and cities, often managed by Swift's own salaried representatives. In marketing the product, Swift had to break down, through advertising and other means, the prejudices against eating meat killed more than a thousand miles away and many weeks earlier. At the same time he had to combat boycotts of local butchers and the concerted efforts of the National Butchers' Protective Association to prevent...
Página 21 - But with the completion of the great east-west trunk lines early in the 1850's administration became a full-time task in American business. The Erie, the New York Central, the Pennsylvania, the Baltimore & Ohio, and the western roads completed in that same decade, such as the Illinois Central, the Michigan Central, and the Michigan Southern...
Página 14 - Structure can be def1ned as the design of organization through which the enterprise is administered. This design, whether formally or informally defined, has two aspects. It includes, first, the lines of authority and communication between the different administrative offices and officers and, second, the information and data that flow through these lines of communication and authority.

Referencias a este libro

Todos los resultados de la Búsqueda de libros »

Sobre el autor (2003)

Alfred D. Chandler, Jr. is Isidor Straus Professor of Business History, Emeritus, at Harvard Business School.

Información bibliográfica