Phytoliths: A Comprehensive Guide for Archaeologists and Paleoecologists

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Rowman Altamira, 2006 - 238 páginas
The study of phytoliths--inorganic silica remnants plants leave behind when they die and decay--has developed dramatically over the last twenty years. New publications have documented a diverse array of phytoliths from many regions around the globe, while new understandings have emerged as to how and why plants produce phytoliths. Together, these developments make phytoliths a powerful tool in reconstructing past environments and human uses of plants. In Phytoliths, Dolores Piperno makes sense of the discipline for both those working directly with phytoliths in the field or the lab as well as for those who rely on the results of phytolith studies for their own research. Including over a hundred images, Piperno's book will be of great benefit to archaeologists and paleobotanists in the classroom or the lab.
 

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Índice

With a Short History of Phytolith Research
1
The Production Deposition and Dissolution of Phytoliths THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHYTOLITHS IN PLANTS
5
HOW PLANTS MAKE PHYTOLITHS WHY PLANTS MAKE PHYTOLITHS
12
THE OCCURRENCE OF PHYTOLITHS IN THE PLANT KINGDOM
15
PHYTOLITH PRESERVATION IN VARIOUS DEPOSITIONAL CONTEXTS
21
Phytolith Morphology
23
SOME FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS OF PHYTOLITH MORPHOLOGY
24
INTRODUCTION PHYTOLITHS IN THE POACEAE
27
METHODS OF PHYTOLITH ISOLATION FOR CARBON14 AND STABLE ISOTOPE STUDY
93
SEPARATING PHYTOLITHS POLLEN DIATOMS AND MICROSCOPIC CHARCOAL SIMULTANEOUSLY AND RECOVERING STARCH GRA...
95
EXTRACTION OF PHYTOLITHS FROM MODERN PLANTS
97
EXTRACTION OF STARCH GRAINS FROM MODERN PLANTS THE ISOLATION OF PHYTOLITHS AND STARCH GRAINS FROM ARTIFAC...
98
OTHER TECHNIQUES OF PHYTOLITH STUDY
100
MICROSCOPE TECHNIQUES
101
DOCUMENTATION OF PHYTOLITHS AND LONG TERM CURATION OF PHOTOGRAPHS AND IMAGES
102
The Interpretation of Phytolith Assemblages Method and Theory THE FORMATION AND INTERPRETATION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND PA...
103

PHYTOLITH MORPHOLOGY IN PTERIDOPHYTES GYMNOSPERMS AND ANGIOSPERMS
35
EUDICOTS
39
PHYTOLITHS IN WOOD
41
LESS USEFUL TYPES OF PHYTOLITHS
42
SUMMARY OF PHYTOLITH TAXONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE
43
Phytoliths in Domesticated Plants and Their Wild Ancestors MAIZE ZEA MAYS AND TEOSINTE ZEA MAYS SUBSP PARVIGLUMIS
45
SQUASHES AND GOURDS OF CUCURBITA AND OTHER DOMESTICATED CUCURBITACEAE
65
MARANTA ARUDINACEA AND CALATHEA ALLOUIA ARROWROOT AND LIREN
71
ORYZA SATIVA RICE
72
MUSA SPP BANANAS AND PLANTAINS AND ENSETE ENSET ABYSSINIAN OR ETHIOPIAN BANANA
74
WHEAT TRITICUM MONOCOCCUM T DICOCCUM AND T AESTIVUM AND BARLEY HORDEUM VULGARE
76
SUMMARY OF PHYTOLITH ANALYSIS IN CROP PLANT IDENTIFICATION AND PROSPECTS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
78
Field Techniques and Research Design SAMPLING ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES
81
SAMPLING LAKES SWAMPS AND OTHER SITES FOR PALEOECOLOGICAL STUDIES
84
MODERN CONTROLS ON SAMPLING
86
MODERN VEGETATION AND SOIL STUDIES
87
Laboratory Techniques THE PHYTOLITH LABORATORY
89
TECHNIQUES FOR EXTRACTING PHYTOLITHS FROM SOILS
90
DATA HANDLING AND PRESENTATION
115
NEW APPROACHES IN PHYTOLITH ANALYSIS
125
THE ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF PARTICULATE CHARCOAL AND CHARRED PHYTOLITHS OCCURRING IN PHYTOLITH PRE...
134
The Role of Phytoliths in Archaeological Reconstruction
139
STUDYING PREHISTORIC PLANT SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE AND AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY WITH PHYTOLITHS
140
PHYTOLITHS STONE TOOL FUNCTION AND DIET
163
PHYTOLITHS IN POTTERY
164
The Role ofPhytoliths in Paleoecology PHYTOLITHS AND PALEOLIMNOLOGY
165
TERRESTRIAL SOILS AND SEDIMENTS
175
PHYTOLITHS IN DEEP PREQUATERNARY TIME
183
PHYTOLITHS IN DEEPSEA CORES
184
THE FUTURE POTENTIAL OF PHYTOLITH ANALYSIS
185
Phytolith Photographs and Illustrations with Their Explanations
187
References
211
Index
229
About the Author
238
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Sobre el autor (2006)

Dolores R. Piperno is an archaeologist with a joint appointment at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and the National Museum of Natural History.

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