Benford's Law: Applications for Forensic Accounting, Auditing, and Fraud Detection

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John Wiley & Sons, 24 abr. 2012 - 352 páginas
A powerful new tool for all forensic accountants, or anyone who analyzes data that may have been altered

Benford's Law gives the expected patterns of the digits in the numbers in tabulated data such as town and city populations or Madoff's fictitious portfolio returns. Those digits, in unaltered data, will not occur in equal proportions; there is a large bias towards the lower digits, so much so that nearly one-half of all numbers are expected to start with the digits 1 or 2. These patterns were originally discovered by physicist Frank Benford in the early 1930s, and have since been found to apply to all tabulated data. Mark J. Nigrini has been a pioneer in applying Benford's Law to auditing and forensic accounting, even before his groundbreaking 1999 Journal of Accountancy article introducing this useful tool to the accounting world. In Benford's Law, Nigrini shows the widespread applicability of Benford's Law and its practical uses to detect fraud, errors, and other anomalies.

  • Explores primary, associated, and advanced tests, all described with data sets that include corporate payments data and election data
  • Includes ten fraud detection studies, including vendor fraud, payroll fraud, due diligence when purchasing a business, and tax evasion
  • Covers financial statement fraud, with data from Enron, AIG, and companies that were the target of hedge fund short sales
  • Looks at how to detect Ponzi schemes, including data on Madoff, Waxenberg, and more
  • Examines many other applications, from the Clinton tax returns and the charitable gifts of Lehman Brothers to tax evasion and number invention

Benford's Law has 250 figures and uses 50 interesting authentic and fraudulent real-world data sets to explain both theory and practice, and concludes with an agenda and directions for future research. The companion website adds additional information and resources.

 

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Índice

Theorems Truisms and a Little Trivia
25
More Formulas and Facts and a Little Fibonacci
51
Contents
55
Primary Benfords Law Tests
71
Advanced Benfords Law Tests
89
Associated Benfords Law Tests
117
Assessing Conformity to Benfords Law
149
Examples of Fraudulent Data
171
Fraudulent Financial Statements Part II
215
Madoff and Other Ponzi Schemes
247
Contents
258
Earth Science and Income Tax Applications
267
Future Directions and Conclusions
293
Glossary of Selected Terms
315
References
323
Página de créditos

Fraudulent Financial Statements Part I
199

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Sobre el autor (2012)

MARK J. NIGRINI, PHD, is a professor at The College of New Jersey where he teaches forensic accounting courses. His research involves advanced theoretical work on Benford's Law and the legal process surrounding fraud convictions. Nigrini is also the author of Forensic Analytics (Wiley), which describes tests to detect fraud, errors, estimates, and biases in financial data. He has been published in national media including the Wall Street Journal and has published papers on Benford's Law and accounting in academic and professional journals. Nigrini regularly presents professional seminars for accountants and auditors in North America, Europe, and Asia with recent events in Singapore, Switzerland, and New Zealand.

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