Astronomical Symbols on Ancient and Medieval Coins
McFarland, 2008 - 225 páginas
The coins of ancient and medieval Europe provide unique insights into the economic and political history of their period. In a time when few members of the population could read or write, the symbols depicted on coins offered a medium for communication, propaganda, and historical archiving. This work hypothesizes that astronomical symbols on ancient and medieval coins were often used as a way to record actual celestial events. The author provides more than 550 figures and line drawings of coins, maps, and astronomical events to illustrate this hypothesis. In addition, several appendices evaluate the historical accuracy of ancient and medieval coinage and offer additional examples not included in the main volume.
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The Sun and the Moon
The Stars and the Planets
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12th century actual celestial events Alfonso ancient and medieval Anglo-Gallic annular eclipse annular solar eclipse annulets annulets figure Aquitaine astronomical events astronomical symbols Battle bust Chi-Rho Christian Christogram chronicles coin figure coinage design Constantine crescent moon cross figure cross fleury crusade Delta-T denarius denier depicted dineros Dioscuri eclipse Figure eclipse paths Edward Edward the Confessor England epsilon France Halley's comet Henry Iberian peninsula immobilized design issued Jupiter king Labarum legend Licinius lunar eclipse Mars Maxentius medieval coinage Mercury mints moneyers motif mullets mullets figure numismatic oboles obverse omen pagan partial eclipse path of annularity penny Perhaps planetary conjunction Poitou Ponthieu pyramids quadrants recorded reference reign represent reverse cross reverse figure Saturn seen sequence significant solar eclipse crossed solar symbol stater Stephen struck tail thin crescent three pellets three planets throne total eclipse total solar eclipse triangle type 23 type XIV types 18 Venus victory visible William